Next Article in Journal
Reduction of False Positives in Structure-Based Virtual Screening When Receptor Plasticity Is Considered
Previous Article in Journal
Functional Characterization of Individual- and Mixed-Burgundian Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isolates for Fermentation of Pinot Noir
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2015, 20(3), 5137-5151; doi:10.3390/molecules20035137

Antiviral Activity of a Nanoemulsion of Polyprenols from Ginkgo Leaves against Influenza A H3N2 and Hepatitis B Virus in Vitro

1
Institute of Chemical Industry of Forestry Products, CAF, Nanjing 210042, China
2
Nation Engineering Lab. for Biomass Chemical Utilization, Nanjing 210042, China
3
Key and Open Lab. on Forest Chemical Engineering, SFA, Nanjing 210042, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 4 December 2014 / Revised: 2 March 2015 / Accepted: 10 March 2015 / Published: 19 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2204 KB, uploaded 19 March 2015]   |  

Abstract

In order to improve the bioavailability levels of polyprenols (derived from ginkgo leaves (GBP)) in the human body, a GBP nanoemulsion was prepared, and its antiviral activity was evaluated against influenza A H3N2 and hepatitis B virus in vitro. Methods: A GBP nanoemulsion was prepared by inversed-phase emulsification (IPE). Next, we investigated the antiviral activity of the GBP nanoemulsion on influenza A H3N2 and hepatitis B virus in vitro by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenlytetrezolium bromide) method. ELISA and the fluorescent quantitative PCR method were used to measure the content of HBsAg, HBeAg and DNA virus in human samples. Results: The GBP nanoemulsion exhibited uniformity at an average particle size 97 nm with a hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) of 9.5. GBP is non-toxic to normal cells, hepatitis B virus DNA, hepatitis B virus antigen and HepG2215. Furthermore, GBP could reach a 70% virucidal activity and a 74.9% protection rate (*** p < 0.001) on MDCK cells infected with H3N2 virus at a high concentration of 100 μg/mL. GBP had a good inhibition rate on HBsAg (52.11%, ** p < 0.01) at 50 μg/mL and Day 9 of incubation, and a 67.32% inhibition effect on HBeAg at a high concentration of 100 μg/mL and Day 9. GBP had good inhibition on HBV DNA with CT 18.6 and lower copies (** p < 0.01) at a middle concentration of 12.5 to 25 μg/mL. Conclusions: The GBP nanoemulsion was very stable and non-toxic and had very strong antiviral activity against influenza A H3N2 and hepatitis B virus in vitro. The inhibitory effects and reactive mechanisms were similar to the drug, 3TC; by lengthening the incubation time and increasing the drug concentration, GBP has promising potential as an antiviral drug. View Full-Text
Keywords: polyprenols; ginkgo leaves; nanoemulsion; influenza A H3N2 virus; hepatitis B virus; antiviral activity; in vitro polyprenols; ginkgo leaves; nanoemulsion; influenza A H3N2 virus; hepatitis B virus; antiviral activity; in vitro
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, C.-Z.; Li, W.-J.; Tao, R.; Ye, J.-Z.; Zhang, H.-Y. Antiviral Activity of a Nanoemulsion of Polyprenols from Ginkgo Leaves against Influenza A H3N2 and Hepatitis B Virus in Vitro. Molecules 2015, 20, 5137-5151.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]

Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top