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Molecules 2015, 20(3), 3628-3646; doi:10.3390/molecules20033628

Eliminating Aluminum Toxicity in an Acid Sulfate Soil for Rice Cultivation Using Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria

1
Department of Land Management, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
2
Soil Chemistry Section, Agricultural Research Institute, Tandojam 70060, Sindh, Pakistan
3
Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
4
Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Gazipur 1701, Bangladesh
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 3 November 2014 / Revised: 30 December 2014 / Accepted: 4 January 2015 / Published: 20 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [870 KB, uploaded 20 February 2015]   |  

Abstract

Aluminum toxicity is widely considered as the most important limiting factor for plants growing in acid sulfate soils. A study was conducted in laboratory and in field to ameliorate Al toxicity using plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB), ground magnesium limestone (GML) and ground basalt. Five-day-old rice seedlings were inoculated by Bacillus sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophila, Burkholderia thailandensis and Burkholderia seminalis and grown for 21 days in Hoagland solution (pH 4.0) at various Al concentrations (0, 50 and 100 μM). Toxicity symptoms in root and leaf were studied using scanning electron microscope. In the field, biofertilizer (PGPB), GML and basalt were applied (4 t·ha−1 each). Results showed that Al severely affected the growth of rice. At high concentrations, the root surface was ruptured, leading to cell collapse; however, no damages were observed in the PGPB inoculated seedlings. After 21 days of inoculation, solution pH increased to >6.0, while the control treatment remained same. Field study showed that the highest rice growth and yield were obtained in the bio-fertilizer and GML treatments. This study showed that Al toxicity was reduced by PGPB via production of organic acids that were able to chelate the Al and the production of polysaccharides that increased solution pH. The release of phytohormones further enhanced rice growth that resulted in yield increase. View Full-Text
Keywords: Al speciation; chelation; indoleacetic acid; phytohormone; ameliorative effect Al speciation; chelation; indoleacetic acid; phytohormone; ameliorative effect
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Panhwar, Q.A.; Naher, U.A.; Radziah, O.; Shamshuddin, J.; Razi, I.M. Eliminating Aluminum Toxicity in an Acid Sulfate Soil for Rice Cultivation Using Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria. Molecules 2015, 20, 3628-3646.

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