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Molecules 2015, 20(2), 2138-2164; doi:10.3390/molecules20022138

Tyrosine Sulfation as a Protein Post-Translational Modification

1
Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, 75 Po-Ai Street, Hsinchu 30068, Taiwan
2
Department of Neurosurgery, Center of Excellence for Clinical Trial and Research, Taipei Medical University-Wan Fang Medical Center, Taipei 11696, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Noriyuki Nagahara
Received: 6 November 2014 / Revised: 6 January 2015 / Accepted: 14 January 2015 / Published: 28 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sulfur Atom: Element for Adaptation to an Oxidative Environment)
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Abstract

Integration of inorganic sulfate into biological molecules plays an important role in biological systems and is directly involved in the instigation of diseases. Protein tyrosine sulfation (PTS) is a common post-translational modification that was first reported in the literature fifty years ago. However, the significance of PTS under physiological conditions and its link to diseases have just begun to be appreciated in recent years. PTS is catalyzed by tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase (TPST) through transfer of an activated sulfate from 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate to tyrosine in a variety of proteins and peptides. Currently, only a small fraction of sulfated proteins is known and the understanding of the biological sulfation mechanisms is still in progress. In this review, we give an introductory and selective brief review of PTS and then summarize the basic biochemical information including the activity and the preparation of TPST, methods for the determination of PTS, and kinetics and reaction mechanism of TPST. This information is fundamental for the further exploration of the function of PTS that induces protein-protein interactions and the subsequent biochemical and physiological reactions. View Full-Text
Keywords: sulfate; organic sulfate; post-translational modification (PTM); protein tyrosine sulfation (PTS); tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase (TPST); 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) sulfate; organic sulfate; post-translational modification (PTM); protein tyrosine sulfation (PTS); tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase (TPST); 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, Y.-S.; Wang, C.-C.; Chen, B.-H.; Hou, Y.-H.; Hung, K.-S.; Mao, Y.-C. Tyrosine Sulfation as a Protein Post-Translational Modification. Molecules 2015, 20, 2138-2164.

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