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Molecules 2015, 20(11), 20014-20030; doi:10.3390/molecules201119674

Bitter Gentian Teas: Nutritional and Phytochemical Profiles, Polysaccharide Characterisation and Bioactivity

1
Institute of General and Experimental Biology, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Science, Sakh’yanovoy Str., 6, Ulan-Ude 670047, Russia
2
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, North-Eastern Federal University, 58 Belinsky Str., Yakutsk 677027, Russia
3
Faculty of the Veterinarian Medicine, Yakut State Agricultural Academy, 15 Krasil’nikova Str., Yakutsk 677007, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christopher Lam
Received: 15 October 2015 / Revised: 29 October 2015 / Accepted: 30 October 2015 / Published: 5 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Herbal Medicine Research)
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Abstract

As a result of the wide distribution of herbal teas the data on nutritional characterisation, chemical profile and biological activity of these products are required. The decoctions of Gentiana algida, G. decumbens, G. macrophylla and G. triflora herb teas were nutritionally characterized with respect to their macronutrients, demonstrating the predominance of polysaccharides and low lipid content. Gentian decoctions were also submitted to a microcolumn RP-HPLC-UV analysis of phytochemicals demonstrating a high content of iridoids (177.18–641.04 μg/mL) and flavonoids (89.15–405.71 μg/mL). Additionally, mangiferin was detected in samples of G. triflora tea (19.89 μg/mL). Five free sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, gentiobiose, gentianose) were identified in all gentian teas studied, as well as six organic acids (malic, citric, tartaric, oxalic, succinic, quinic). Pectic polysaccharides with a high content of rhamnogalacturonans and arabinogalactans were also identified and characterized in gentian decoctions for the first time. Gentian tea decoctions and their specific compounds (gentiopicroside, loganic acid-6′-O-β-d-glucoside, isoorientin, isoorientin-4′-O-β-d-glucoside, mangiferin, water-soluble polysaccharides) showed a promising antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potentials. Evidences obtained indicate the prospective use of gentian herb teas as food products and medicines. View Full-Text
Keywords: Gentiana algida; Gentiana decumbens; Gentiana macrophylla; Gentiana triflora; iridoids; flavonoids; polysaccharides; anti-inflammatory; antioxidant; antimicrobial activity Gentiana algida; Gentiana decumbens; Gentiana macrophylla; Gentiana triflora; iridoids; flavonoids; polysaccharides; anti-inflammatory; antioxidant; antimicrobial activity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Olennikov, D.N.; Kashchenko, N.I.; Chirikova, N.K.; Koryakina, L.P.; Vladimirov, L.N. Bitter Gentian Teas: Nutritional and Phytochemical Profiles, Polysaccharide Characterisation and Bioactivity. Molecules 2015, 20, 20014-20030.

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