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Molecules 2015, 20(10), 17913-17928; doi:10.3390/molecules201017913

Potent Activities of Roemerine against Candida albicans and the Underlying Mechanisms

1
Department of Pharmacy, Kunming General Hospital of Chengdu Military Region, 212 Da-Guan Road, Kunming 650032, China
2
School of Pharmacy, Kunming Medical University, 1168 Yu-Hua Road, Kunming 650500, China
3
New Drug Research and Development Center, School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China
4
School of Pharmacy, Yunnan College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1076 Yu-Hua Road, Kunming 650500, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 1 August 2015 / Revised: 7 September 2015 / Accepted: 22 September 2015 / Published: 29 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Abstract

Roemerine (RM) is an aporphine alkaloid isolated from the fresh rattan stem of Fibraurea recisa, and it has been demonstrated to have certain antifungal activity. This study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of RM and the underlying mechanisms in Candida albicans (C. albicans). The in vitro antifungal activity of RM was evaluated by a series of experiments, including the XTT reduction assay, confocal laser scanning microscopy assay, scanning electron microscope assay. Results showed that 1 μg/mL RM inhibited biofilm formation significantly (p < 0.01) both in Spider medium and Lee’s medium. In addition, RM could inhibit yeast-to-hyphae transition of C. albicans in a dose-dependent manner. The biofilm-specific and hypha-specific genes such as YWP1, SAP5, SAP6, HWP1, ECE1 were up-regulated and EFG1 was down-regulated after 8 μg/mL RM treatment. Furthermore, the toxicity of RM was investigated using C. elegans worms, three cancer cells and one normal cell. The date showed that RM had no significant toxicity. In conclusion, RM could inhibited the formation of C. albicans biofilm in vitro, but it had no fungicidal effect on planktonic C. albicans cells, and the anti-biofilm mechanism may be related to the cAMP pathway. View Full-Text
Keywords: antifungal activity; roemerine; Candida albicans; biofilm antifungal activity; roemerine; Candida albicans; biofilm
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ma, C.; Du, F.; Yan, L.; He, G.; He, J.; Wang, C.; Rao, G.; Jiang, Y.; Xu, G. Potent Activities of Roemerine against Candida albicans and the Underlying Mechanisms. Molecules 2015, 20, 17913-17928.

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