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Molecules 2015, 20(10), 17872-17882; doi:10.3390/molecules201017872

Methanolic Extract of Ganoderma lucidum Induces Autophagy of AGS Human Gastric Tumor Cells

1
Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto, Porto 4099-002, Portugal
2
Cancer Drug Resistance Group, Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology of the University of Porto (IPATIMUP), Rua Júlio Amaral de Carvalho, 45, Porto 4200-135, Portugal
3
Departamento de Nutrición y Bromatología II, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), Pza Ramón y Cajal, s/n, E-28040 Madrid, Spain
4
Mountain Research Center (CIMO), ESA, Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Apartado 1172, Bragança 5301-855, Portugal
5
Department of Pathology and Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Alameda Professor Hernâni Monteiro, Porto 4200-319, Portugal
6
Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira n.° 228, Porto 4050-313, Portugal
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nancy D. Turner
Received: 28 July 2015 / Revised: 21 September 2015 / Accepted: 23 September 2015 / Published: 29 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Compounds)
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Abstract

Ganoderma lucidum is one of the most widely studied mushroom species, particularly in what concerns its medicinal properties. Previous studies (including those from some of us) have shown some evidence that the methanolic extract of G. lucidum affects cellular autophagy. However, it was not known if it induces autophagy or decreases the autophagic flux. The treatment of a gastric adenocarcinoma cell line (AGS) with the mushroom extract increased the formation of autophagosomes (vacuoles typical from autophagy). Moreover, the cellular levels of LC3-II were also increased, and the cellular levels of p62 decreased, confirming that the extract affects cellular autophagy. Treating the cells with the extract together with lysossomal protease inhibitors, the cellular levels of LC3-II and p62 increased. The results obtained proved that, in AGS cells, the methanolic extract of G. lucidum causes an induction of autophagy, rather than a reduction in the autophagic flux. To our knowledge, this is the first study proving that statement. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ganoderma lucidum; methanolic extract; antitumor potential; programmed cell death (PCD); autophagy Ganoderma lucidum; methanolic extract; antitumor potential; programmed cell death (PCD); autophagy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Reis, F.S.; Lima, R.T.; Morales, P.; Ferreira, I.C.F.R.; Vasconcelos, M.H. Methanolic Extract of Ganoderma lucidum Induces Autophagy of AGS Human Gastric Tumor Cells. Molecules 2015, 20, 17872-17882.

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