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Molecules 2015, 20(10), 17883-17902; doi:10.3390/molecules201017883

Phytotoxic Potential and Biological Activity of Three Synthetic Coumarin Derivatives as New Natural-Like Herbicides

1
Dipartimento AGRARIA, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria 89124, Italy
2
Laboratory of Industrial and Synthetic Organic Chemistry (LISOC), Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie Chimiche, Università della Calabria, Via P. Bucci 12/C, Arcavacata di Rende (Cosenza) 87036, Italy
3
Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco e dei Prodotti per la Salute, Università di Messina, Via SS Annunziata, Messina 98168, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Pascal Richomme and Derek J. McPhee
Received: 16 July 2015 / Revised: 21 September 2015 / Accepted: 21 September 2015 / Published: 29 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coumarins, Xanthones and Related Compounds)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3377 KB, uploaded 29 September 2015]   |  

Abstract

Coumarin is a natural compound well known for its phytotoxic potential. In the search for new herbicidal compounds to manage weeds, three synthetic derivatives bearing the coumarin scaffold (13), synthesized by a carbonylative organometallic approach, were in vitro assayed on germination and root growth of two noxious weeds, Amaranthus retroflexus and Echinochloa crus-galli. Moreover, the synthetic coumarins 13 were also in vitro assayed on seedlings growth of the model species Arabidopsis thaliana to identify the possible physiological targets. All molecules strongly affected seed germination and root growth of both weeds. Interestingly, the effects of synthetic coumarins on weed germination were higher than template natural coumarin, pointing out ED50 values ranging from 50–115 µM. Moreover, all synthetic coumarins showed a strong phytotoxic potential on both Arabidopsis shoot and root growth, causing a strong reduction in shoot fresh weight (ED50 values ≤ 60 µM), accompanied by leaf development and a decrease in pigment content. Furthermore, they caused a strong alteration in root growth (ED50 values ≤ 170 µM) and morphology with evident alterations in root tip anatomy. Taken together, our results highlight the promising potential herbicidal activity of these compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana; Amaranthus retroflexus; Echinochloa crus-galli; germination; root morphology; phytotoxicity; natural-like herbicides; coumarins Arabidopsis thaliana; Amaranthus retroflexus; Echinochloa crus-galli; germination; root morphology; phytotoxicity; natural-like herbicides; coumarins
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Araniti, F.; Mancuso, R.; Lupini, A.; Giofrè, S.V.; Sunseri, F.; Gabriele, B.; Abenavoli, M.R. Phytotoxic Potential and Biological Activity of Three Synthetic Coumarin Derivatives as New Natural-Like Herbicides. Molecules 2015, 20, 17883-17902.

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