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Molecules 2015, 20(10), 17720-17734; doi:10.3390/molecules201017720

Hinokitiol Exerts Anticancer Activity through Downregulation of MMPs 9/2 and Enhancement of Catalase and SOD Enzymes: In Vivo Augmentation of Lung Histoarchitecture

1
Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan
2
Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Taipei City Hospital, Zhongxiao Branch, Taipei 115, Taiwan
3
Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan
4
Department of Cardiology, Cathay General Hospital, Taipei 106, Taiwan
5
Department of Anatomy, Taipei Medical University, No. 250 Wu-Hsing Street, Taipei 110, Taiwan
6
Department of Microbiology, Institute of Ophthalmology, Joseph Eye Hospital, Tiruchirappalli 620001, Tamil Nadu, India
7
Department of Emergency, Min-Sheng General Hospital, Taoyuan 330, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 21 August 2015 / Revised: 18 September 2015 / Accepted: 22 September 2015 / Published: 25 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1343 KB, uploaded 25 September 2015]   |  

Abstract

Melanoma is extremely resistant to chemotherapy and the death rate is increasing hastily worldwide. Extracellular matrix promotes the migration and invasion of tumor cells through the production of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9. Evidence has shown that natural dietary antioxidants are capable of inhibiting cancer cell growth. Our recent studies showed that hinokitiol, a natural bioactive compound, inhibited vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and platelets aggregation. The present study is to investigate the anticancer efficacy of hinokitiol against B16-F10 melanoma cells via modulating tumor invasion factors MMPs, antioxidant enzymes in vitro. An in vivo mice model of histological investigation was performed to study the patterns of elastic and collagen fibers. Hinokitiol inhibited the expression and activity of MMPs-2 and -9 in B16-F10 melanoma cells, as measured by western blotting and gelatin zymography, respectively. An observed increase in protein expression of MMPs 2/9 in melanoma cells was significantly inhibited by hinokitiol. Notably, hinokitiol (1–5 μM) increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) from the reduction in melanoma cells. Also, hinokitiol (2–10 µM) concentration dependently reduced in vitro Fenton reaction induced hydroxyl radical (OH·) formation. An in vivo study showed that hinokitiol treatment increased elastic fibers (EF), collagens dispersion, and improved alveolar alterations in the lungs of B16/F10 injected mice. Overall, our findings propose that hinokitiol may be a potent anticancer candidate through down regulation of MMPs 9/2, reduction of OH· production and enhancement of antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT. View Full-Text
Keywords: hinokitiol; melanoma; MMPs; antioxidant enzymes; histology; elastic fiber hinokitiol; melanoma; MMPs; antioxidant enzymes; histology; elastic fiber
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Huang, C.-H.; Jayakumar, T.; Chang, C.-C.; Fong, T.-H.; Lu, S.-H.; Thomas, P.A.; Choy, C.-S.; Sheu, J.-R. Hinokitiol Exerts Anticancer Activity through Downregulation of MMPs 9/2 and Enhancement of Catalase and SOD Enzymes: In Vivo Augmentation of Lung Histoarchitecture. Molecules 2015, 20, 17720-17734.

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