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Molecules 2015, 20(1), 1161-1175; doi:10.3390/molecules20011161

Degradation Dynamics of Glyphosate in Different Types of Citrus Orchard Soils in China

1
MOA Key Lab for Pesticide Residue Detection, Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021, China
2
Shanghai Extension and Service Center of Agriculture Technical, Shanghai 201103, China
3
Zhejiang Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Hangzhou 310012, China
4
State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, Institute of Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
5
State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Plant Pest and Disease Control, Key Laboratory of Detection for Pesticide Residues, Ministry of Agriculture, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jesus Simal-Gandara
Received: 22 October 2014 / Accepted: 6 January 2015 / Published: 12 January 2015
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Abstract

Glyphosate formulations that are used as a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide have been widely applied in agriculture, causing increasing concerns about residues in soils. In this study, the degradation dynamics of glyphosate in different types of citrus orchard soils in China were evaluated under field conditions. Glyphosate soluble powder and aqueous solution were applied at 3000 and 5040 g active ingredient/hm2, respectively, in citrus orchard soils, and periodically drawn soil samples were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that the amount of glyphosate and its degradation product aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in soils was reduced with the increase of time after application of glyphosate formulations. Indeed, the amount of glyphosate in red soil from Hunan and Zhejiang Province, and clay soil from Guangxi Province varied from 0.13 to 0.91 µg/g at 42 days after application of aqueous solution. Furthermore, the amount of glyphosate in medium loam from Zhejiang and Guangdong Province, and brown loam from Guizhou Province varied from less than 0.10 to 0.14 µg/g, while the amount of AMPA varied from less than 0.10 to 0.99 µg/g at 42 days after application of soluble powder. Overall, these findings demonstrated that the degradation dynamics of glyphosate aqueous solution and soluble powder as well as AMPA depend on the physicochemical properties of the applied soils, in particular soil pH, which should be carefully considered in the application of glyphosate herbicide. View Full-Text
Keywords: degradation dynamics; residue; glyphosate; soil properties; HPLC degradation dynamics; residue; glyphosate; soil properties; HPLC
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhang, C.; Hu, X.; Luo, J.; Wu, Z.; Wang, L.; Li, B.; Wang, Y.; Sun, G. Degradation Dynamics of Glyphosate in Different Types of Citrus Orchard Soils in China. Molecules 2015, 20, 1161-1175.

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