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Molecules 2014, 19(9), 14316-14351; doi:10.3390/molecules190914316

Understanding the Interaction Determinants of CAPN1 Inhibition by CAST4 from Bovines Using Molecular Modeling Techniques

1
Animal Genome & Bioinformatics Division, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA, Suwon 441-706, Korea
2
Insilicotech Co. Ltd., C-602 Korea Bio Park, 694-1 Sampyeong-Dong, Bundang-Gu, Seongnam-Shi 463-400, Gyeonggi-Do, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 June 2014 / Revised: 21 August 2014 / Accepted: 1 September 2014 / Published: 11 September 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Abstract

HCV-induced CAPN activation and its effects on virus-infected cells in a host-immune system have been studied recently. It has been shown that the HCV-nonstructural 5A protein acts as both an inducer and a substrate for host CAPN protease; it participates in suppressing the TNF-α-induced apoptosis response and downstream IFN-induced antiviral processes. However, little is known regarding the disturbance of antiviral responses generated by bovine CAPN activation by BVDV, which is a surrogate model of HCV and is one of the most destructive diseases leading to great economic losses in cattle herds worldwide. This is also thought to be associated with the effects of either small CAPN inhibitors or the natural inhibitor CAST. They mainly bind to the binding site of CAPN substrate proteins and competitively inhibit the binding of the enzyme substrates to possibly defend against the two viruses (HCV and BVDV) for anti-viral immunity. To devise a new stratagem to discover lead candidates for an anti-BVDV drug, we first attempted to understand the bovine CAPN-CAST interaction sites and the interaction constraints of local binding architectures, were well reflected in the geometry between the pharmacophore features and its shape constraints identified using our modeled bovine CAPN1/CAST4 complex structures. We propose a computer-aided molecular design of an anti-BVDV drug as a mimetic CAST inhibitor to develop a rule-based screening function for adjusting the puzzle of relationship between bovine CAPN1 and the BVDV nonstructural proteins from all of the data obtained in the study. View Full-Text
Keywords: CAPN1 (μ-calpain); CAST4 (the fourth repetitive calpain-inhibition domain of calpastatin); Bovine CAPN1/CAST4 system; computer-aided molecular design; anti-BVDV drug CAPN1 (μ-calpain); CAST4 (the fourth repetitive calpain-inhibition domain of calpastatin); Bovine CAPN1/CAST4 system; computer-aided molecular design; anti-BVDV drug
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chai, H.-H.; Lim, D.; Jung, E.; Choi, B.-H.; Cho, Y.-M. Understanding the Interaction Determinants of CAPN1 Inhibition by CAST4 from Bovines Using Molecular Modeling Techniques. Molecules 2014, 19, 14316-14351.

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