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Molecules 2014, 19(9), 13683-13703; doi:10.3390/molecules190913683

Effects of Climatic Conditions and Soil Properties on Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Growth and Anthocyanin Profiles

1
College of Enology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China
2
Center for Viticulture and Enology, College of Food Science & Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
3
Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Viti-Viniculture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 June 2014 / Revised: 28 August 2014 / Accepted: 29 August 2014 / Published: 2 September 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanins)
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Abstract

Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two “Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V)” vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012). The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C) days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3′5′-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of high-quality wine grapes in different regions. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cabernet Sauvignon; climatic conditons; soil properties; berry growth; anthocyanin profiles Cabernet Sauvignon; climatic conditons; soil properties; berry growth; anthocyanin profiles
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cheng, G.; He, Y.-N.; Yue, T.-X.; Wang, J.; Zhang, Z.-W. Effects of Climatic Conditions and Soil Properties on Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Growth and Anthocyanin Profiles. Molecules 2014, 19, 13683-13703.

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