Next Article in Journal
Effects of Egg Yolk-Derived Peptide on Osteogenic Gene Expression and MAPK Activation
Previous Article in Journal
Genetic Variability and Population Structure of the Potential Bioenergy Crop Miscanthus sinensis (Poaceae) in Southwest China Based on SRAP Markers
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2014, 19(9), 12898-12908; doi:10.3390/molecules190912898

GA3 and Other Signal Regulators (MeJA and IAA) Improve Xanthumin Biosynthesis in Different Manners in Xanthium strumarium L.

CAS Key Laboratory of Plant Germplasm Enhancement and Specialty Agriculture, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 June 2014 / Revised: 9 August 2014 / Accepted: 11 August 2014 / Published: 25 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1558 KB, uploaded 25 August 2014]   |  


Xanthanolides from Xanthium strumarium L. exhibit various pharmacological activities and these compounds are mainly produced in the glandular trichomes of aerial plant parts. The regulation of xanthanolide biosynthesis has never been reported in the literature. In this study, the effects of phytohormonal stimulation on xanthumin (a xanthanolide compound) biosynthesis, glandular trichomes and germacrene A synthase (GAS) gene expression in X. strumarium L. young leaves were investigated. The exogenous applications of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and gibberrellin A3 (GA3) at appropriate concentrations were all found to improve xanthumin biosynthesis, but in different ways. It was suggested that a higher gland density stimulated by MeJA (400 µM) or IAA (200 µM) treatment caused at least in part an improvement in xanthumin production, whereas GA3 (10 µM) led to an improvement by up-regulating xanthumin biosynthetic genes within gland cells, not by forming more glandular trichomes. Compared to the plants before the flowering stage, plants that had initiated flowering showed enhanced xanthumin biosynthesis, but no higher gland density, an effect was similar to that caused by exogenous GA3 treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: Xanthium strumarium L.; glandular trichomes; xanthanolide; phytohormones Xanthium strumarium L.; glandular trichomes; xanthanolide; phytohormones

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Li, C.; Chen, F.; Zhang, Y. GA3 and Other Signal Regulators (MeJA and IAA) Improve Xanthumin Biosynthesis in Different Manners in Xanthium strumarium L.. Molecules 2014, 19, 12898-12908.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top