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Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7459-7479; doi:10.3390/molecules19067459

Organic Liquids-Responsive β-Cyclodextrin-Functionalized Graphene-Based Fluorescence Probe: Label-Free Selective Detection of Tetrahydrofuran

The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
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Received: 1 April 2014 / Revised: 3 June 2014 / Accepted: 4 June 2014 / Published: 6 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Probes)
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Abstract

In this study, a label-free graphene-based fluorescence probe used for detection of volatile organic liquids was fabricated by a simple, efficient and low-cost method. To fabricate the probe, a bio-based β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was firstly grafted on reduced graphene surfaces effectively and uniformly, as evidenced by various characterization techniques such as Ultraviolet/Visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The subsequent inclusion of Rhodamine B (RhB) into the inner cavities of the β-CD grafted on the graphene surfaces was achieved easily by a solution mixing method, which yielded the graphene-based fluorescent switch-on probe. In addition, the gradual and controllable quenching of RhB by Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer from RhB to graphene during the process of stepwise accommodation of the RhB molecules into the β-CD-functionalized graphene was investigated in depth. A wide range of organic solvents was examined using the as-fabricated fluorescence probe, which revealed the highest sensitivity to tetrahydrofuran with the detection limit of about 1.7 μg/mL. Some insight into the mechanism of the different responsive behaviors of the fluorescence sensor to the examined targets was also described. View Full-Text
Keywords: β-cyclodextrin; graphene oxide; chemical reduction and functionalization; functionalized graphene; Rhodamine B; fluorescence quenching; fluorescence switch-on; fluorescence probe; sensor; sensing platform β-cyclodextrin; graphene oxide; chemical reduction and functionalization; functionalized graphene; Rhodamine B; fluorescence quenching; fluorescence switch-on; fluorescence probe; sensor; sensing platform
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Hu, H.; Xin, J.H.; Hu, H.; Wang, X.; Lu, X. Organic Liquids-Responsive β-Cyclodextrin-Functionalized Graphene-Based Fluorescence Probe: Label-Free Selective Detection of Tetrahydrofuran. Molecules 2014, 19, 7459-7479.

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