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Molecules 2014, 19(5), 6428-6438; doi:10.3390/molecules19056428

Antiprotozoal Activity of Achillea ptarmica (Asteraceae) and Its Main Alkamide Constituents

1
Institut für Pharmazeutische Biologie und Phytochemie (IPBP), University of Münster, PharmaCampus, Corrensstraße 48, Münster D-48149, Germany
2
Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH), Socinstraße 57, Basel CH-4002, Switzerland
3
University of Basel, Petersplatz 1, Basel CH-4003, Switzerland
Part of Thesis. A preliminary account on this work has been published in abstract form (Planta Med. 2013, 79, 1129).
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 March 2014 / Revised: 14 May 2014 / Accepted: 15 May 2014 / Published: 20 May 2014
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Abstract

In the course of our ongoing screening of plants of the family Asteraceae for antiprotozoal activity, a CH2Cl2-extract from the flowering aerial parts of Achillea ptarmica L. (sneezewort yarrow) was found to be active in vitro against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (IC50 = 0.67 µg/mL) and Plasmodium falciparum (IC50 = 6.6 μg/mL). Bioassay guided fractionation led to the isolation and identification of five alkamides from the most active fractions. Pellitorine and 8,9-Z-dehyropellitorine are the main components of the extract. Beside these olefinic acid amides, four alkamides with diene-diyne structures were isolated. All alkamides were tested for antiprotozoal activity in vitro. Pellitorine was the most active compound so far within this study against P. falciparum (IC50 = 3.3 µg/mL), while 8,9-Z-dehydropellitorine was most active against T. b. rhodesiense (IC50 = 2.0 µg/mL). The activity of pure pellitorine against Plasmodium is higher than that of the crude extract and thus explains the activity of the latter. None of the isolated alkamides, however, was as active against T. b. rhodesiense as the crude extract whose antitrypanosomal activity must therfore be due to a synergistic effect of the isolated compounds or to more active yet to be identified constituents. View Full-Text
Keywords: Achillea ptarmica; antiprotozoal activity; alkamide; Plasmodium falciparum; Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense; Trypanosoma cruzi; Leishmania donovani Achillea ptarmica; antiprotozoal activity; alkamide; Plasmodium falciparum; Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense; Trypanosoma cruzi; Leishmania donovani
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Althaus, J.B.; Kaiser, M.; Brun, R.; Schmidt, T.J. Antiprotozoal Activity of Achillea ptarmica (Asteraceae) and Its Main Alkamide Constituents. Molecules 2014, 19, 6428-6438.

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