Abstract: Clofazimine, a member of the riminophenazine class, is one of the few antibiotics that are still active against multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). However, the clinical utility of this agent is limited by its undesirable physicochemical properties and skin pigmentation potential. With the goal of maintaining potent antituberculosis activity while improving physicochemical properties and lowering skin pigmentation potential, a series of novel riminophenazine derivatives containing a 2-methoxypyridylamino substituent at the C-2 position of the phenazine nucleus were designed and synthesized. These compounds were evaluated for antituberculosis activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv and screened for cytotoxicity. Riminophenazines bearing a 3-halogen- or 3,4-dihalogen-substituted phenyl group at the N-5 position exhibited potent antituberculosis activity, with MICs ranging from 0.25~0.01 μg/mL. The 3,4-dihalogen- substituted compounds displayed low cytotoxicity, with IC50 values greater than 64 μg/mL. Among these riminophenazines, compound 15 exhibited equivalent in vivo efficacy against M. tuberculosis infection and reduced skin discoloration potential in an experimental mouse infection model as compared to clofazimine. Compound 15, as compared to clofazimine, also demonstrated improved physicochemical properties and pharmacokinetic profiles with a short half-life and less drug tissue accumulation. This compound is being evaluated as a potential drug candidate for the treatment of multidrug resistant tuberculosis.
Keywords: clofazimine; antituberculosis activity; 2-methoxypyridylamino-substituted riminophenazines; skin discoloration
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Zhang, D.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, H.; Wang, B.; Xu, J.; Fu, L.; Yin, D.; Cooper, C.B.; Ma, Z.; Lu, Y.; Huang, H. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel 2-Methoxypyridylamino-Substituted Riminophenazine Derivatives as Antituberculosis Agents. Molecules 2014, 19, 4380-4394.
Zhang D, Liu Y, Zhang C, Zhang H, Wang B, Xu J, Fu L, Yin D, Cooper CB, Ma Z, Lu Y, Huang H. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel 2-Methoxypyridylamino-Substituted Riminophenazine Derivatives as Antituberculosis Agents. Molecules. 2014; 19(4):4380-4394.
Zhang, Dongfeng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Chunlin; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Bin; Xu, Jian; Fu, Lei; Yin, Dali; Cooper, Christopher B.; Ma, Zhenkun; Lu, Yu; Huang, Haihong. 2014. "Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel 2-Methoxypyridylamino-Substituted Riminophenazine Derivatives as Antituberculosis Agents." Molecules 19, no. 4: 4380-4394.