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Correlation between Inflammatory Markers of Atherosclerosis and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Cardiovascular Diseases Section, Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation (DETO), University of Bari, Bari 70124, Italy
Institute of Respiratory Disease, University of Bari, Bari 70124, Italy
Section of Clinical Pathology, University of Bari, Bari 70124, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 December 2013; in revised form: 21 January 2014 / Accepted: 21 January 2014 / Published: 29 January 2014
Abstract: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a sleep-related breathing disorder associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerosis. Systemic inflammation plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular complications in OSA patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and inflammatory markers plasma levels in OSA patients. We enrolled 80 OSA patients and 40 controls matched for age and body mass index (BMI). The presence and severity of sleep apnea was determined by in-laboratory portable monitoring (PM). Demographic data, blood pressure, heart rate, and cIMT were measured. High-sensitive C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP), interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and pentraxin (PTX)-3 serum concentrations were detected. cIMT was higher in OSA patients than controls (0.89 ± 0.13 mm vs. 0.65 ± 0.1 mm, p < 0.01). Moderate-severe OSA patients (0.95 ± 0.09 mm) had significantly increased cIMT than mild OSA (0.76 ± 0.1 mm; p < 0.01) and control (0.65 ± 0.1 mm; p < 0.01). hsCRP, IL-6, TNF-α, and PTX-3 in patients with OSA (1.67 ± 0.66 mg/L, 2.86 ± 1.39 pg/mL, 20.09 ± 5.39 pg/mL, 2.1 ± 0.59 ng/mL, respectively) were significantly higher than in controls (1.08 ± 0.53 mg/L, p < 0.01; 1.5 ± 0.67 pg/mL, p < 0.01; 12.53 ± 3.48 pg/mL, p < 0.01; 1.45 ± 0.41 ng/mL, p < 0.01, respectively). Carotid IMT was significantly correlated to CRP (r = 0.44; p < 0.01), IL-6 (r = 0.42; p < 0.01), TNF-α (r = 0.53; p < 0.01), and PTX-3 (r = 0.49; p < 0.01). OSA patients showed increased cIMT, CRP, IL-6, TNF-α, and PTX-3 levels. Inflammatory markers levels are correlated to cIMT in OSA patients.
Keywords: carotid intima-media thickness; obstructive sleep apnea; high sensitive C-reactive protein; interleukin-6; tumor necrosis factor-alpha; pentraxin-3
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MDPI and ACS Style
Ciccone, M.M.; Scicchitano, P.; Zito, A.; Cortese, F.; Boninfante, B.; Falcone, V.A.; Quaranta, V.N.; Ventura, V.A.; Zucano, A.; Di Serio, F.; Damiani, M.F.; Resta, O. Correlation between Inflammatory Markers of Atherosclerosis and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Molecules 2014, 19, 1651-1662.
Ciccone MM, Scicchitano P, Zito A, Cortese F, Boninfante B, Falcone VA, Quaranta VN, Ventura VA, Zucano A, Di Serio F, Damiani MF, Resta O. Correlation between Inflammatory Markers of Atherosclerosis and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Molecules. 2014; 19(2):1651-1662.
Ciccone, Marco M.; Scicchitano, Pietro; Zito, Annapaola; Cortese, Francesca; Boninfante, Barbara; Falcone, Vito A.; Quaranta, Vitaliano N.; Ventura, Valentina A.; Zucano, Antonietta; Di Serio, Francesca; Damiani, Mario F.; Resta, Onofrio. 2014. "Correlation between Inflammatory Markers of Atherosclerosis and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Obstructive Sleep Apnea." Molecules 19, no. 2: 1651-1662.