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Molecules 2014, 19(12), 21066-21084; doi:10.3390/molecules191221066

Obtaining Ready-to-Eat Blue Corn Expanded Snacks with Anthocyanins Using an Extrusion Process and Response Surface Methodology

1
Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias de los Alimentos, Universidad de Sonora, Blvd. Luis Encinas y Rosales s/n, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000, Mexico
2
Centro de Investigación e Innovación en Biotecnología Agropecuaria, Instituto Tecnológico de Sonora, 5 de Febrero 818 Sur, Col. Centro, Ciudad Obregón, Sonora 8500, Mexico
3
Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV—Unidad Querétaro), Libramiento Norponiente#2000, Fraccionamiento Real de Juriquilla, Querétaro, Querétaro 76230, Mexico
4
UAEMex Campus Universitario "El Cerrillo". El Cerrillo Piedras Blancas s/n, Toluca, Estado de Mexico 50200, Mexico
5
Programa Regional del Noroeste para el Doctorado en Biotecnología, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Av. de las Américas y Blvd. Universitarios s/n, Culiacán, Sinaloa 80010, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 September 2014 / Revised: 3 December 2014 / Accepted: 10 December 2014 / Published: 15 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanins)
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Abstract

Extrusion is an alternative technology for the production of nixtamalized products. The aim of this study was to obtain an expanded nixtamalized snack with whole blue corn and using the extrusion process, to preserve the highest possible total anthocyanin content, intense blue/purple coloration (color b) and the highest expansion index. A central composite experimental design was used. The extrusion process factors were: feed moisture (FM, 15%–23%), calcium hydroxide concentration (CHC, 0%–0.25%) and final extruder temperature (T, 110–150 °C). The chemical and physical properties evaluated in the extrudates were moisture content (MC, %), total anthocyanins (TA, mg·kg−1), pH, color (L, a, b) and expansion index (EI). ANOVA and surface response methodology were applied to evaluate the effects of the extrusion factors. FM and T significantly affected the response variables. An optimization step was performed by overlaying three contour plots to predict the best combination region. The extrudates were obtained under the following optimum factors: FM (%) = 16.94, CHC (%) = 0.095 and T (°C) = 141.89. The predicted extrusion processing factors were highly accurate, yielding an expanded nixtamalized snack with 158.87 mg·kg−1 TA (estimated: 160 mg·kg−1), an EI of 3.19 (estimated: 2.66), and color parameter b of −0.44 (estimated: 0.10). View Full-Text
Keywords: blue corn; anthocyanins; snack; extrusion; optimization blue corn; anthocyanins; snack; extrusion; optimization
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Escalante-Aburto, A.; Ramírez-Wong, B.; Torres-Chávez, P.I.; López-Cervantes, J.; Figueroa-Cárdenas, J.D.; Barrón-Hoyos, J.M.; Morales-Rosas, I.; Ponce-García, N.; Gutiérrez-Dorado, R. Obtaining Ready-to-Eat Blue Corn Expanded Snacks with Anthocyanins Using an Extrusion Process and Response Surface Methodology. Molecules 2014, 19, 21066-21084.

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