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Molecules 2014, 19(12), 21044-21065; doi:10.3390/molecules191221044

Antiprotozoal Activity against Entamoeba histolytica of Plants Used in Northeast Mexican Traditional Medicine. Bioactive Compounds from Lippia graveolens and Ruta chalepensis

1
Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Av. Universidad S/N, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, C.P. 66451 Nuevo León, Mexico
2
Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Av. Universidad S/N, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, C.P. 66451 Nuevo León, Mexico
3
Laboratorio de Bioquímica y Biología Celular, Centro de Investigaciones Biomédicas del Noreste (CIBIN), Dos de abril esquina con San Luis Potosí, C.P. 64720 Monterrey, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 September 2014 / Revised: 10 December 2014 / Accepted: 11 December 2014 / Published: 15 December 2014
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Abstract

Amoebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica is associated with high morbidity and mortality is becoming a major public health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. Because of the side-effects and the resistance that pathogenic protozoa build against the standard antiparasitic drugs, e.g., metronidazole, much recent attention has been paid to plants used in traditional medicine around the world in order to find new antiprotozoal agents. We collected 32 plants used in Northeast Mexican traditional medicine and the methanolic extracts of these species were screened for antiprotozoal activity against E. histolytica trophozoites using in vitro tests. Only 18 extracts showed a significant inhibiting activity and among them six plant extracts showed more than 80% growth inhibition against E. histolytica at a concentration of 150 µg/mL and the IC50 values of these extracts were determined. Lippia graveolens Kunth and Ruta chalepensis Pers. showed the more significant antiprotozoal activity (91.54% and 90.50% growth inhibition at a concentration of 150 µg/mL with IC50 values of 59.14 and 60.07 µg/mL, respectively). Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extracts from these two plants afforded carvacrol (1) and chalepensin (2), respectively, as bioactive compounds with antiprotozoal activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: neglected diseases; amoebiasis; Mexican medicinal plants; bioguided isolation; carvacrol; chalepensin; antiprotozoal agents; 1D- and 2D-NMR data neglected diseases; amoebiasis; Mexican medicinal plants; bioguided isolation; carvacrol; chalepensin; antiprotozoal agents; 1D- and 2D-NMR data
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Quintanilla-Licea, R.; Mata-Cárdenas, B.D.; Vargas-Villarreal, J.; Bazaldúa-Rodríguez, A.F.; Kavimngeles-Hernández, I.; Garza-González, J.N.; Hernández-García, M.E. Antiprotozoal Activity against Entamoeba histolytica of Plants Used in Northeast Mexican Traditional Medicine. Bioactive Compounds from Lippia graveolens and Ruta chalepensis. Molecules 2014, 19, 21044-21065.

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