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Molecules 2014, 19(11), 18721-18732; doi:10.3390/molecules191118721

Methanolic Extracts of Solieria robusta Inhibits Proliferation of Oral Cancer Ca9-22 Cells via Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress

1
Department of Dentistry, Ten Chan General Hospital, Chung-Li 32043, Taiwan
2
Laboratory for Translational Oncology and Personalized Medicine, Rashid Latif Medical College, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
3
Department of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
4
Department of Botany, Government College University, Lahore, Katchery Road Lahore 54000, Pakistan
5
Cancer Center, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
6
Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
7
Department of Radiation Oncology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
8
Department of Radiation Oncology, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, Kaohsiung 80145, Taiwan
9
Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan
10
Graduate Institute of Natural Products, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
11
Institute of Clinical Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
12
Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, Kaohsiung 80145, Taiwan
13
Institute of Medical Science and Technology, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan
14
Research Center of Excellence for Environmental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 October 2014 / Revised: 7 November 2014 / Accepted: 10 November 2014 / Published: 14 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract

Many red algae-derived natural products are known to have anticancer effects. The biological functions of the red alga Solieria robusta from the Karachi coast (Pakistan) remain unclear. Here, we prepared a methanolic extracts of S. robusta (MESR) to examine its possible anti-oral cancer effects and the corresponding mechanism of action. Cell viability of MESR-incubated oral cancer Ca9-22 cells was dose-responsively decreased (p < 0.001). According to a propidium iodide (PI)-based assay the cell cycle distribution was dramatically changed, especially for subG1 accumulation. Annexin V/PI assay of apoptosis using flow cytometry also showed that MESR-incubated Ca9-22 cells were dose-responsively increased (p < 0.001). For evaluation of oxidative stress in MESR-incubated Ca9-22 cells, we found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) were overexpressed dose- and time-responsively and mitochondrial depolarization was also increased (p < 0.001). Taken together, MESR showed inhibitory effects on oral cancer proliferation coupled with apoptosis and oxidative stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: red alga; oral cancer; apoptosis; ROS; mitochondrial depolarization red alga; oral cancer; apoptosis; ROS; mitochondrial depolarization
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yen, Y.-H.; Farooqi, A.A.; Li, K.-T.; Butt, G.; Tang, J.-Y.; Wu, C.-Y.; Cheng, Y.-B.; Hou, M.-F.; Chang, H.-W. Methanolic Extracts of Solieria robusta Inhibits Proliferation of Oral Cancer Ca9-22 Cells via Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress. Molecules 2014, 19, 18721-18732.

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