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Molecules 2014, 19(11), 17381-17399; doi:10.3390/molecules191117381

Tissue-Specific Distribution of Ginsenosides in Different Aged Ginseng and Antioxidant Activity of Ginseng Leaf

1
State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Dao-di Herbs, National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China
2
Institute of Natural Medicine and Chinese Medicine Resources, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100700, China
3
National Integrative Medicine Center for Cardiovascular Disease, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing 100700, China
4
Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 August 2014 / Revised: 26 September 2014 / Accepted: 14 October 2014 / Published: 28 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the effect of the cultivation year on the quality of different ginseng tissues. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of ginsenosides were conducted using a UPLC-UV-MS method. Eight main ginsenosides in three tissues (leaf, rhizome and main root) and four parts (periderm, phloem, cambium and xylem) of ginseng aged from 1 to 13 years were determined using a UPLC-PDA method. Additionally, the antioxidant capacities of ginseng leaves were analyzed by the DPPH, ABTS and HRSA methods. It was found that the contents of ginsenosides increased with cultivation years, causing a sequential content change of ginsenosides in an organ-specific manner: leaf > rhizome > main root. The ratio between protopanaxatriol (PPT, Rg1, Re and RF) and protopanaxadiol (PPD, Rb1, Rb2, RC and Rd) in the main root remained stable (about 1.0), while it increased in leaf from 1.37 to 3.14 and decreased in the rhizome from 0.99 to 0.72. The amount of ginsenosides accumulated in the periderm was 45.48 mg/g, which was more than twice as high compared with the other three parts. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of ginseng leaves were measured as Trolox equivalents, showing that antioxidant activity increased along with time of cultivation. The results show that the best harvest time for shizhu ginseng is the fifth year of cultivation, and the root and rhizome could be used together within seven planting years for their similar PPT/PPD level. Besides, the quality of the ginseng products would be enhanced with the periderm. The ginseng leaf is rich in ginsenosides and has potential application for its antioxidant capacity. View Full-Text
Keywords: ginseng; ginsenosides; UPLC; quantitative analysis; antioxidant activity ginseng; ginsenosides; UPLC; quantitative analysis; antioxidant activity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, Y.-C.; Li, G.; Jiang, C.; Yang, B.; Yang, H.-J.; Xu, H.-Y.; Huang, L.-Q. Tissue-Specific Distribution of Ginsenosides in Different Aged Ginseng and Antioxidant Activity of Ginseng Leaf. Molecules 2014, 19, 17381-17399.

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