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Glutathione and the Antioxidant Potential of Binary Mixtures with Flavonoids: Synergisms and Antagonisms
REQUIMTE/Laboratório de Farmacognosia, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, nº 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 June 2013; in revised form: 10 July 2013 / Accepted: 22 July 2013 / Published: 25 July 2013
Abstract: Polyphenols are able to trap free radicals, which contributes to their known antioxidant capacity. In plant extracts, these secondary metabolites may act in concert, in a way that their combined activities will be superior to their individual effects (synergistic interaction). Several polyphenols have demonstrated clear antioxidant properties in vitro, and many of their biological actions have been attributed to their intrinsic reducing capabilities. As so, the intake of these compounds at certain concentrations in the diet and/or supplementation may potentiate the activity of reduced form glutathione (GSH), thus better fighting oxidative stress. The aim of this work was to predict a structure-antioxidant activity relationship using different classes of flavonoids and to assess, for the first time, possible synergisms and antagonisms with GSH. For these purposes a screening microassay involving the scavenging of DPPH• was applied. In general, among the tested compounds, those lacking the catechol group in B ring showed antagonistic behaviour with GSH. Myricetin displayed additive effect, while quercetin, fisetin, luteolin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, taxifolin and (+)-catechin demonstrated synergistic actions. Furthermore, adducts formed at C2′ and C5′ of the B ring seem to be more important for the antioxidant capacity than adducts formed at C6 and C8 of the A ring.
Keywords: flavonoids; glutathione; antioxidant activity; synergism; antagonism
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Pereira, R.B.; Sousa, C.; Costa, A.; Andrade, P.B.; Valentão, P. Glutathione and the Antioxidant Potential of Binary Mixtures with Flavonoids: Synergisms and Antagonisms. Molecules 2013, 18, 8858-8872.
Pereira RB, Sousa C, Costa A, Andrade PB, Valentão P. Glutathione and the Antioxidant Potential of Binary Mixtures with Flavonoids: Synergisms and Antagonisms. Molecules. 2013; 18(8):8858-8872.
Pereira, Renato B.; Sousa, Carla; Costa, Andreia; Andrade, Paula B.; Valentão, Patrícia. 2013. "Glutathione and the Antioxidant Potential of Binary Mixtures with Flavonoids: Synergisms and Antagonisms." Molecules 18, no. 8: 8858-8872.