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Anti-Candida Targets and Cytotoxicity of Casuarinin Isolated from Plinia cauliflora Leaves in a Bioactivity-Guided Study
Department of Drugs and Medicines, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UNESP-Univ Estadual Paulista, Rodovia Araraquara-Jau, km 1, Araraquara, 14801-902, São Paulo, Brazil
Department of Microbiology, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD, Scotland, UK
Department of Organic Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, UNESP-Univ Estadual Paulista, R. Francisco Degni s/n, Araraquara, 14800-900, São Paulo, Brazil
Nowadays this author is at Department of Pharmacy and Nutrition, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, UFES-Univ Federal do Espírito Santo, Alto Universitário, Guararema, 29500-000, Alegre, ES, Brazil.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 May 2013; in revised form: 5 July 2013 / Accepted: 5 July 2013 / Published: 9 July 2013
Abstract: In addition to the bio-guided investigation of the antifungal activity of Plinia cauliflora leaves against different Candida species, the major aim of the present study was the search for targets on the fungal cell. The most active antifungal fraction was purified by chromatography and characterized by NMR and mass spectrometry. The antifungal activity was evaluated against five Candida strains according to referenced guidelines. Cytotoxicity against fibroblast cells was determined. The likely targets of Candida albicans cells were assessed through interactions with ergosterol and cell wall composition, porosity and architecture. The chemical major component within the most active antifungal fraction of P. cauliflora leaves identified was the hydrolysable tannin casuarinin. The cytotoxic concentration was higher than the antifungal one. The first indication of plant target on cellular integrity was suggested by the antifungal activity ameliorated when using an osmotic support. The most important target for the tannin fraction studied was suggested by ultrastructural analysis of yeast cell walls revealing a denser mannan outer layer and wall porosity reduced. It is possible to imply that P. cauliflora targeted the C. albicans cell wall inducing some changes in the architecture, notably the outer glycoprotein layer, affecting the cell wall porosity without alteration of the polysaccharide or protein level.
Keywords: Plinia cauliflora (Myrtaceae); ellagitannin; Candida; antifungal activity; cell wall
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Souza-Moreira, T.M.; Severi, J.A.; Lee, K.; Preechasuth, K.; Santos, E.; Gow, N.A.R.; Munro, C.A.; Vilegas, W.; Pietro, R.C.L.R. Anti-Candida Targets and Cytotoxicity of Casuarinin Isolated from Plinia cauliflora Leaves in a Bioactivity-Guided Study. Molecules 2013, 18, 8095-8108.
Souza-Moreira TM, Severi JA, Lee K, Preechasuth K, Santos E, Gow NAR, Munro CA, Vilegas W, Pietro RCLR. Anti-Candida Targets and Cytotoxicity of Casuarinin Isolated from Plinia cauliflora Leaves in a Bioactivity-Guided Study. Molecules. 2013; 18(7):8095-8108.
Souza-Moreira, Tatiana M.; Severi, Juliana A.; Lee, Keunsook; Preechasuth, Kanya; Santos, Emerson; Gow, Neil A.R.; Munro, Carol A.; Vilegas, Wagner; Pietro, Rosemeire C.L.R. 2013. "Anti-Candida Targets and Cytotoxicity of Casuarinin Isolated from Plinia cauliflora Leaves in a Bioactivity-Guided Study." Molecules 18, no. 7: 8095-8108.