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Molecules 2013, 18(7), 7646-7660; doi:10.3390/molecules18077646
Article

Eco-Friendly Chitosan Production by Syncephalastrum racemosum and Application to the Removal of Acid Orange 7 (AO7) from Wastewaters

1,2,3
,
3,†
,
4,†
,
3,†
 and
3,†,*
1 Rede Nordeste de Biotecnologia (RENORBIO), Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Rua Dom Manoel de Medeiros, s/n, Dois Irmãos—52171-900 Recife, PE, Brasil 2 Departamento de Ciências Animais (DCAN), Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, Av. Francisco Mota, 572—Costa e Silva—59625-900 Mossoró, RN, Brasil 3 Pesquisas em Ciências Ambientais (NPCIAMB), Universidade Católica de Pernambuco, Boa Vista 50 050-590 Recife, PE, Brasil 4 Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia da Paraíba, Av. 1° de Maio, Jaguaribe 58015-430 João Pessoa, PB, Brasil These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 March 2013 / Revised: 2 May 2013 / Accepted: 25 June 2013 / Published: 1 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
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Abstract

Due to the existence of new methodologies that have reduced the production costs of microbiological chitosan, this paper puts forward the use of agro-industrial residues in order to produce microbiological chitosan and to apply chitosan as an innovative resource for removing acid orange 7 (AO7) from wastewaters. The best culture conditions were selected by a full 24 factorial design, and the removal of the dye was optimized by a 23 central composite rotational design. The results showed that corn steep liquor (CSL) is an agro-industrial residue that can be advantageously used to produce microbiological chitosan with yields up to 7.8 g/kg of substrate. FT-IR spectra of the product showed typical peak distributions like those of standard chitosan which confirmed the extracted product was chitosan-like. The efficiency of removing low concentrations of AO7 by using microbiological chitosan in distilled water (up to 89.96%) and tap water (up to 80.60%) was significantly higher than the efficiency of the control (chitosan obtained from crustaceans), suggesting that this biopolymer is a better economic alternative for discoloring wastewater where a low concentration of the dye is considered toxic. The high percentage recovery of AO7 from the microbiological chitosan particles used favors this biopolymer as a possible bleaching agent which may be reusable.
Keywords: microbiological chitosan; acid orange 7 (AO7); central composite rotational design; agro-industrial residues; Syncephalastrum racemosum; corn steep liquor; coagulation-flocculation microbiological chitosan; acid orange 7 (AO7); central composite rotational design; agro-industrial residues; Syncephalastrum racemosum; corn steep liquor; coagulation-flocculation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Batista, A.C.L.; Silva, M.C.F.; Batista, J.B.; Nascimento, A.E.; Campos-Takaki, G.M. Eco-Friendly Chitosan Production by Syncephalastrum racemosum and Application to the Removal of Acid Orange 7 (AO7) from Wastewaters. Molecules 2013, 18, 7646-7660.

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