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Molecules 2013, 18(7), 7646-7660; doi:10.3390/molecules18077646
Article

Eco-Friendly Chitosan Production by Syncephalastrum racemosum and Application to the Removal of Acid Orange 7 (AO7) from Wastewaters

1,2,3
,
3,†
,
4,†
,
3,†
 and
3,†,*
1 Rede Nordeste de Biotecnologia (RENORBIO), Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Rua Dom Manoel de Medeiros, s/n, Dois Irmãos—52171-900 Recife, PE, Brasil 2 Departamento de Ciências Animais (DCAN), Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, Av. Francisco Mota, 572—Costa e Silva—59625-900 Mossoró, RN, Brasil 3 Pesquisas em Ciências Ambientais (NPCIAMB), Universidade Católica de Pernambuco, Boa Vista 50 050-590 Recife, PE, Brasil 4 Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia da Paraíba, Av. 1° de Maio, Jaguaribe 58015-430 João Pessoa, PB, Brasil These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 March 2013 / Revised: 2 May 2013 / Accepted: 25 June 2013 / Published: 1 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract

Due to the existence of new methodologies that have reduced the production costs of microbiological chitosan, this paper puts forward the use of agro-industrial residues in order to produce microbiological chitosan and to apply chitosan as an innovative resource for removing acid orange 7 (AO7) from wastewaters. The best culture conditions were selected by a full 24 factorial design, and the removal of the dye was optimized by a 23 central composite rotational design. The results showed that corn steep liquor (CSL) is an agro-industrial residue that can be advantageously used to produce microbiological chitosan with yields up to 7.8 g/kg of substrate. FT-IR spectra of the product showed typical peak distributions like those of standard chitosan which confirmed the extracted product was chitosan-like. The efficiency of removing low concentrations of AO7 by using microbiological chitosan in distilled water (up to 89.96%) and tap water (up to 80.60%) was significantly higher than the efficiency of the control (chitosan obtained from crustaceans), suggesting that this biopolymer is a better economic alternative for discoloring wastewater where a low concentration of the dye is considered toxic. The high percentage recovery of AO7 from the microbiological chitosan particles used favors this biopolymer as a possible bleaching agent which may be reusable.
Keywords: microbiological chitosan; acid orange 7 (AO7); central composite rotational design; agro-industrial residues; Syncephalastrum racemosum; corn steep liquor; coagulation-flocculation microbiological chitosan; acid orange 7 (AO7); central composite rotational design; agro-industrial residues; Syncephalastrum racemosum; corn steep liquor; coagulation-flocculation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Batista, A.C.L.; Silva, M.C.F.; Batista, J.B.; Nascimento, A.E.; Campos-Takaki, G.M. Eco-Friendly Chitosan Production by Syncephalastrum racemosum and Application to the Removal of Acid Orange 7 (AO7) from Wastewaters. Molecules 2013, 18, 7646-7660.

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