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Molecules 2013, 18(12), 14760-14779; doi:10.3390/molecules181214760
Review

G-Quadruplexes as Sensing Probes

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Received: 9 September 2013; in revised form: 13 November 2013 / Accepted: 13 November 2013 / Published: 28 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue G-Quadruplexes & i-Motif DNA)
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Abstract: Guanine-rich sequences of DNA are able to create tetrastranded structures known as G-quadruplexes; they are formed by the stacking of planar G-quartets composed of four guanines paired by Hoogsteen hydrogen bonding. G-quadruplexes act as ligands for metal ions and aptamers for various molecules. Interestingly, the G-quadruplexes form a complex with anionic porphyrin hemin and exhibit peroxidase-like activity. This review focuses on overview of sensing techniques based on G-quadruplex complexes with anionic porphyrins for detection of various analytes, including metal ions such as K+, Ca2+, Ag+, Hg2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Sr2+, organic molecules, nucleic acids, and proteins. Principles of G-quadruplex-based detection methods involve DNA conformational change caused by the presence of analyte which leads to a decrease or an increase in peroxidase activity, fluorescence, or electrochemical signal of the used probe. The advantages of various detection techniques are also discussed.
Keywords: G-quadruplex; DNAzyme; hemin G-quadruplex; DNAzyme; hemin
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ruttkay-Nedecky, B.; Kudr, J.; Nejdl, L.; Maskova, D.; Kizek, R.; Adam, V. G-Quadruplexes as Sensing Probes. Molecules 2013, 18, 14760-14779.

AMA Style

Ruttkay-Nedecky B, Kudr J, Nejdl L, Maskova D, Kizek R, Adam V. G-Quadruplexes as Sensing Probes. Molecules. 2013; 18(12):14760-14779.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Kudr, Jiri; Nejdl, Lukas; Maskova, Darina; Kizek, Rene; Adam, Vojtech. 2013. "G-Quadruplexes as Sensing Probes." Molecules 18, no. 12: 14760-14779.



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