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G-Quadruplexes as Sensing Probes
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, Brno CZ-613 00, Czech Republic
Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 3058/10, Brno CZ-616 00, Czech Republic
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 September 2013; in revised form: 13 November 2013 / Accepted: 13 November 2013 / Published: 28 November 2013
Abstract: Guanine-rich sequences of DNA are able to create tetrastranded structures known as G-quadruplexes; they are formed by the stacking of planar G-quartets composed of four guanines paired by Hoogsteen hydrogen bonding. G-quadruplexes act as ligands for metal ions and aptamers for various molecules. Interestingly, the G-quadruplexes form a complex with anionic porphyrin hemin and exhibit peroxidase-like activity. This review focuses on overview of sensing techniques based on G-quadruplex complexes with anionic porphyrins for detection of various analytes, including metal ions such as K+, Ca2+, Ag+, Hg2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Sr2+, organic molecules, nucleic acids, and proteins. Principles of G-quadruplex-based detection methods involve DNA conformational change caused by the presence of analyte which leads to a decrease or an increase in peroxidase activity, fluorescence, or electrochemical signal of the used probe. The advantages of various detection techniques are also discussed.
Keywords: G-quadruplex; DNAzyme; hemin
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Ruttkay-Nedecky, B.; Kudr, J.; Nejdl, L.; Maskova, D.; Kizek, R.; Adam, V. G-Quadruplexes as Sensing Probes. Molecules 2013, 18, 14760-14779.
Ruttkay-Nedecky B, Kudr J, Nejdl L, Maskova D, Kizek R, Adam V. G-Quadruplexes as Sensing Probes. Molecules. 2013; 18(12):14760-14779.
Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Kudr, Jiri; Nejdl, Lukas; Maskova, Darina; Kizek, Rene; Adam, Vojtech. 2013. "G-Quadruplexes as Sensing Probes." Molecules 18, no. 12: 14760-14779.