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Molecules 2013, 18(12), 14760-14779; doi:10.3390/molecules181214760

G-Quadruplexes as Sensing Probes

1 Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, Brno CZ-613 00, Czech Republic 2 Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 3058/10, Brno CZ-616 00, Czech Republic
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 September 2013 / Revised: 13 November 2013 / Accepted: 13 November 2013 / Published: 28 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue G-Quadruplexes & i-Motif DNA)
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Guanine-rich sequences of DNA are able to create tetrastranded structures known as G-quadruplexes; they are formed by the stacking of planar G-quartets composed of four guanines paired by Hoogsteen hydrogen bonding. G-quadruplexes act as ligands for metal ions and aptamers for various molecules. Interestingly, the G-quadruplexes form a complex with anionic porphyrin hemin and exhibit peroxidase-like activity. This review focuses on overview of sensing techniques based on G-quadruplex complexes with anionic porphyrins for detection of various analytes, including metal ions such as K+, Ca2+, Ag+, Hg2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Sr2+, organic molecules, nucleic acids, and proteins. Principles of G-quadruplex-based detection methods involve DNA conformational change caused by the presence of analyte which leads to a decrease or an increase in peroxidase activity, fluorescence, or electrochemical signal of the used probe. The advantages of various detection techniques are also discussed.
Keywords: G-quadruplex; DNAzyme; hemin G-quadruplex; DNAzyme; hemin
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Ruttkay-Nedecky, B.; Kudr, J.; Nejdl, L.; Maskova, D.; Kizek, R.; Adam, V. G-Quadruplexes as Sensing Probes. Molecules 2013, 18, 14760-14779.

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