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Following the Mechanisms of Bacteriostatic versus Bactericidal Action Using Raman Spectroscopy
Institute of Scientific Instruments of the Academy of Science of the Czech republic, v.v.i., Královopolská 147, 612 64 Brno, Czech Republic
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and St. Anne's Faculty Hospital, Brno, Czech Republic
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 August 2013; in revised form: 10 October 2013 / Accepted: 17 October 2013 / Published: 24 October 2013
Abstract: Antibiotics cure infections by influencing bacterial growth or viability. Antibiotics can be divided to two groups on the basis of their effect on microbial cells through two main mechanisms, which are either bactericidal or bacteriostatic. Bactericidal antibiotics kill the bacteria and bacteriostatic antibiotics suppress the growth of bacteria (keep them in the stationary phase of growth). One of many factors to predict a favorable clinical outcome of the potential action of antimicrobial chemicals may be provided using in vitro bactericidal/bacteriostatic data (e.g., minimum inhibitory concentrations—MICs). Consequently, MICs are used in clinical situations mainly to confirm resistance, and to determine the in vitro activities of new antimicrobials. We report on the combination of data obtained from MICs with information on microorganisms’ “fingerprint” (e.g., DNA/RNA, and proteins) provided by Raman spectroscopy. Thus, we could follow mechanisms of the bacteriostatic versus bactericidal action simply by detecting the Raman bands corresponding to DNA. The Raman spectra of Staphylococcus epidermidis treated with clindamycin (a bacteriostatic agent) indeed show little effect on DNA which is in contrast with the action of ciprofloxacin (a bactericidal agent), where the Raman spectra show a decrease in strength of the signal assigned to DNA, suggesting DNA fragmentation.
Keywords: Raman spectroscopy; antibiotics; bacteria; bactericidal; bacteriostatic
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Bernatová, S.; Samek, O.; Pilát, Z.; Šerý, M.; Ježek, J.; Jákl, P.; Šiler, M.; Krzyžánek, V.; Zemánek, P.; Holá, V.; Dvořáčková, M.; Růžička, F. Following the Mechanisms of Bacteriostatic versus Bactericidal Action Using Raman Spectroscopy. Molecules 2013, 18, 13188-13199.
Bernatová S, Samek O, Pilát Z, Šerý M, Ježek J, Jákl P, Šiler M, Krzyžánek V, Zemánek P, Holá V, Dvořáčková M, Růžička F. Following the Mechanisms of Bacteriostatic versus Bactericidal Action Using Raman Spectroscopy. Molecules. 2013; 18(11):13188-13199.
Bernatová, Silvie; Samek, Ota; Pilát, Zdeněk; Šerý, Mojmír; Ježek, Jan; Jákl, Petr; Šiler, Martin; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Zemánek, Pavel; Holá, Veronika; Dvořáčková, Milada; Růžička, Filip. 2013. "Following the Mechanisms of Bacteriostatic versus Bactericidal Action Using Raman Spectroscopy." Molecules 18, no. 11: 13188-13199.