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Molecules 2013, 18(10), 11842-11858; doi:10.3390/molecules181011842

In Vitro and in Vivo Studies of the Inhibitory Effects of Emodin Isolated from Polygonum cuspidatum on Coxsakievirus B4

1 State Key Laboratory of Virology, Institute of Medical Virology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, China 2 College of Pharmacy, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074, China 3 School of Basic Medicine, Hubei University of Chinese Medicine, Wuhan 430065, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 July 2013 / Revised: 4 September 2013 / Accepted: 10 September 2013 / Published: 25 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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The lack of effective therapeutics for Coxsackievirus B4 (CVB4) infection underscores the importance of finding novel antiviral compounds. Emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone) is one of the natural anthraquinone derivatives obtained from the root and rhizome of Polygonum cuspidatum. In the present study, the possibility of using emodin as a potential antiviral to treat CVB4 infection was explored in vitro and in mice. Emodin reduced CVB4 entry and replication on Hep-2 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 12.06 μM and selectivity index (SI) of 5.08, respectively. The inhibitory effect of emodin for CVB4 entry and replication was further confirmed by a quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) assay. The results further showed that the mice orally treated with different dosages of emodin displayed a dose dependent increase of survival rate, body weight and prolonged mean time of death (MTD), accompanied by significantly decreased myocardial virus titers and pathologic scores/lesions. Moreover, emodin could inhibit CVB4-induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicated that emodin could be used as potential antiviral in the post-exposure prophylaxis for CVB4 infection.
Keywords: emodin; Polygonum cuspidatum; inhibitory effect; Coxsakievirus B4 emodin; Polygonum cuspidatum; inhibitory effect; Coxsakievirus B4
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Liu, Z.; Wei, F.; Chen, L.-J.; Xiong, H.-R.; Liu, Y.-Y.; Luo, F.; Hou, W.; Xiao, H.; Yang, Z.-Q. In Vitro and in Vivo Studies of the Inhibitory Effects of Emodin Isolated from Polygonum cuspidatum on Coxsakievirus B4 . Molecules 2013, 18, 11842-11858.

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