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Molecules 2013, 18(10), 11842-11858; doi:10.3390/molecules181011842
Article

In Vitro and in Vivo Studies of the Inhibitory Effects of Emodin Isolated from Polygonum cuspidatum on Coxsakievirus B4

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1 State Key Laboratory of Virology, Institute of Medical Virology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, China 2 College of Pharmacy, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074, China 3 School of Basic Medicine, Hubei University of Chinese Medicine, Wuhan 430065, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 July 2013 / Revised: 4 September 2013 / Accepted: 10 September 2013 / Published: 25 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
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Abstract

The lack of effective therapeutics for Coxsackievirus B4 (CVB4) infection underscores the importance of finding novel antiviral compounds. Emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone) is one of the natural anthraquinone derivatives obtained from the root and rhizome of Polygonum cuspidatum. In the present study, the possibility of using emodin as a potential antiviral to treat CVB4 infection was explored in vitro and in mice. Emodin reduced CVB4 entry and replication on Hep-2 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 12.06 μM and selectivity index (SI) of 5.08, respectively. The inhibitory effect of emodin for CVB4 entry and replication was further confirmed by a quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) assay. The results further showed that the mice orally treated with different dosages of emodin displayed a dose dependent increase of survival rate, body weight and prolonged mean time of death (MTD), accompanied by significantly decreased myocardial virus titers and pathologic scores/lesions. Moreover, emodin could inhibit CVB4-induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicated that emodin could be used as potential antiviral in the post-exposure prophylaxis for CVB4 infection.
Keywords: emodin; Polygonum cuspidatum; inhibitory effect; Coxsakievirus B4 emodin; Polygonum cuspidatum; inhibitory effect; Coxsakievirus B4
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Liu, Z.; Wei, F.; Chen, L.-J.; Xiong, H.-R.; Liu, Y.-Y.; Luo, F.; Hou, W.; Xiao, H.; Yang, Z.-Q. In Vitro and in Vivo Studies of the Inhibitory Effects of Emodin Isolated from Polygonum cuspidatum on Coxsakievirus B4 . Molecules 2013, 18, 11842-11858.

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