Next Article in Journal
Access to Any Site Directed Stable Isotope (2H, 13C, 15N, 17O and 18O) in Genetically Encoded Amino Acids
Previous Article in Journal
Semi-Synthesis of Labeled Proteins for Spectroscopic Applications
Article Menu

Article Versions

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2013, 18(1), 466-481; doi:10.3390/molecules18010466

Optimization of Shikonin Homogenate Extraction from Arnebia euchroma Using Response Surface Methodology

Key Laboratory of Forest Plant Ecology, Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China
College of Pharmacy, Qiqihar Medical University, Qiqihar 161006, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 November 2012 / Revised: 21 December 2012 / Accepted: 26 December 2012 / Published: 2 January 2013
Download PDF [1337 KB, uploaded 18 June 2014]


An efficient homogenate extraction technique was employed for extracting shikonin from Arnebia euchroma. The homogenate extraction procedure was optimized and compared with other conventional extraction techniques. The proposed method gave the best result with the highest extraction efficiency in the shortest extraction time. Based on single-factor experiments, a three-factor-three-level experimental design has been developed by Box-Behnken design. The optimal conditions were 78% ethanol as solvent, homogenate extraction time of 4.2 min, 10.3 liquid to solid ratio and two extraction cycles. Moreover, the proposed method was validated by stability, repeatability and recovery experiments. The developed homogenate extraction method provided a good alternative for the extraction of shikonin from A. euchroma. The results indicated that the proposed homogenate extraction was a convenient, rapid and efficient sample preparation technique and was environmental friendly. Furthermore, homogenate extraction has superiority in the extraction of thermally sensitive compounds from plant matrices.
Keywords: Arnebia euchroma; shikonin; homogenate extraction; response surface methodology Arnebia euchroma; shikonin; homogenate extraction; response surface methodology
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, T.; Ma, C.; Yang, L.; Wang, W.; Sui, X.; Zhao, C.; Zu, Y. Optimization of Shikonin Homogenate Extraction from Arnebia euchroma Using Response Surface Methodology. Molecules 2013, 18, 466-481.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top