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Molecules 2012, 17(7), 8720-8734; doi:10.3390/molecules17078720
Article

Bioactivity-Guided Isolation of Ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate, an Anti-inflammatory Constituent, from Kaempferia galanga L. Extracts

1,* , 1
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2
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1
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1 Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden 11800, Penang, Malaysia 2 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden 11800, Penang, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 May 2012 / Revised: 24 June 2012 / Accepted: 11 July 2012 / Published: 23 July 2012
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Abstract

This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of Kaempferia galanga (KG) using an activity-guided approach. KG rhizomes were serially extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water. These extracts (2 g/kg each) were tested for their ability to inhibit carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. The chloroform extract was found to exert the highest inhibition (42.9%) compared to control (p < 0.001), hence it was further fractionated by washing serially with hexane, hexane-chloroform (1:1) and chloroform. The chloroform fraction (1 g/kg) showed the highest inhibitory effect (51.9%, p < 0.001) on carrageenan-induced edema. This chloroform fraction was further fractionated with hexane-chloroform (1:3) and chloroform, and of the two fractions, the hexane-chloroform sub-fraction was the most effective in inhibiting edema (53.7%, p < 0.001). GC-MS analysis of the active sub-fraction identified ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate (EPMC) as the major component, which was re-crystallized. EPMC dose-dependently inhibited carrageenan-induced edema with an MIC of 100 mg/kg. Moreover, in an in vitro study, EPMC non-selectively inhibited the activities of cyclooxygenases 1 and 2, with IC50 values of 1.12 µM and 0.83 µM respectively. These results validate the anti-inflammatory activity of KG which may be exerted by the inhibition of cyclooxygenases 1 and 2. EPMC isolated from this plant may be the active anti-inflammatory agent.
Keywords: ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate; carrageenan-induced edema; cyclooxygenase; Kaempferia galanga; anti-inflammatory activity ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate; carrageenan-induced edema; cyclooxygenase; Kaempferia galanga; anti-inflammatory activity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Umar, M.I.; Asmawi, M.Z.; Sadikun, A.; Atangwho, I.J.; Yam, M.F.; Altaf, R.; Ahmed, A. Bioactivity-Guided Isolation of Ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate, an Anti-inflammatory Constituent, from Kaempferia galanga L. Extracts. Molecules 2012, 17, 8720-8734.

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