Abstract: This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of Kaempferia galanga (KG) using an activity-guided approach. KG rhizomes were serially extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water. These extracts (2 g/kg each) were tested for their ability to inhibit carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. The chloroform extract was found to exert the highest inhibition (42.9%) compared to control (p < 0.001), hence it was further fractionated by washing serially with hexane, hexane-chloroform (1:1) and chloroform. The chloroform fraction (1 g/kg) showed the highest inhibitory effect (51.9%, p < 0.001) on carrageenan-induced edema. This chloroform fraction was further fractionated with hexane-chloroform (1:3) and chloroform, and of the two fractions, the hexane-chloroform sub-fraction was the most effective in inhibiting edema (53.7%, p < 0.001). GC-MS analysis of the active sub-fraction identified ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate (EPMC) as the major component, which was re-crystallized. EPMC dose-dependently inhibited carrageenan-induced edema with an MIC of 100 mg/kg. Moreover, in an in vitro study, EPMC non-selectively inhibited the activities of cyclooxygenases 1 and 2, with IC50 values of 1.12 µM and 0.83 µM respectively. These results validate the anti-inflammatory activity of KG which may be exerted by the inhibition of cyclooxygenases 1 and 2. EPMC isolated from this plant may be the active anti-inflammatory agent.
Keywords: ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate; carrageenan-induced edema; cyclooxygenase; Kaempferia galanga; anti-inflammatory activity
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Umar, M.I.; Asmawi, M.Z.; Sadikun, A.; Atangwho, I.J.; Yam, M.F.; Altaf, R.; Ahmed, A. Bioactivity-Guided Isolation of Ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate, an Anti-inflammatory Constituent, from Kaempferia galanga L. Extracts. Molecules 2012, 17, 8720-8734.
Umar MI, Asmawi MZ, Sadikun A, Atangwho IJ, Yam MF, Altaf R, Ahmed A. Bioactivity-Guided Isolation of Ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate, an Anti-inflammatory Constituent, from Kaempferia galanga L. Extracts. Molecules. 2012; 17(7):8720-8734.
Umar, Muhammad Ihtisham; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Sadikun, Amirin; Atangwho, Item J.; Yam, Mun Fei; Altaf, Rabia; Ahmed, Ashfaq. 2012. "Bioactivity-Guided Isolation of Ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate, an Anti-inflammatory Constituent, from Kaempferia galanga L. Extracts." Molecules 17, no. 7: 8720-8734.