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Molecules 2012, 17(7), 8720-8734; doi:10.3390/molecules17078720
Article

Bioactivity-Guided Isolation of Ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate, an Anti-inflammatory Constituent, from Kaempferia galanga L. Extracts

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Received: 18 May 2012; in revised form: 24 June 2012 / Accepted: 11 July 2012 / Published: 23 July 2012
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Abstract: This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of Kaempferia galanga (KG) using an activity-guided approach. KG rhizomes were serially extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water. These extracts (2 g/kg each) were tested for their ability to inhibit carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. The chloroform extract was found to exert the highest inhibition (42.9%) compared to control (p < 0.001), hence it was further fractionated by washing serially with hexane, hexane-chloroform (1:1) and chloroform. The chloroform fraction (1 g/kg) showed the highest inhibitory effect (51.9%, p < 0.001) on carrageenan-induced edema. This chloroform fraction was further fractionated with hexane-chloroform (1:3) and chloroform, and of the two fractions, the hexane-chloroform sub-fraction was the most effective in inhibiting edema (53.7%, p < 0.001). GC-MS analysis of the active sub-fraction identified ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate (EPMC) as the major component, which was re-crystallized. EPMC dose-dependently inhibited carrageenan-induced edema with an MIC of 100 mg/kg. Moreover, in an in vitro study, EPMC non-selectively inhibited the activities of cyclooxygenases 1 and 2, with IC50 values of 1.12 µM and 0.83 µM respectively. These results validate the anti-inflammatory activity of KG which may be exerted by the inhibition of cyclooxygenases 1 and 2. EPMC isolated from this plant may be the active anti-inflammatory agent.
Keywords: ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate; carrageenan-induced edema; cyclooxygenase; Kaempferia galanga; anti-inflammatory activity ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate; carrageenan-induced edema; cyclooxygenase; Kaempferia galanga; anti-inflammatory activity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Umar, M.I.; Asmawi, M.Z.; Sadikun, A.; Atangwho, I.J.; Yam, M.F.; Altaf, R.; Ahmed, A. Bioactivity-Guided Isolation of Ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate, an Anti-inflammatory Constituent, from Kaempferia galanga L. Extracts. Molecules 2012, 17, 8720-8734.

AMA Style

Umar MI, Asmawi MZ, Sadikun A, Atangwho IJ, Yam MF, Altaf R, Ahmed A. Bioactivity-Guided Isolation of Ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate, an Anti-inflammatory Constituent, from Kaempferia galanga L. Extracts. Molecules. 2012; 17(7):8720-8734.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Umar, Muhammad Ihtisham; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Sadikun, Amirin; Atangwho, Item J.; Yam, Mun Fei; Altaf, Rabia; Ahmed, Ashfaq. 2012. "Bioactivity-Guided Isolation of Ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate, an Anti-inflammatory Constituent, from Kaempferia galanga L. Extracts." Molecules 17, no. 7: 8720-8734.


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