Molecules 2012, 17(7), 8720-8734; doi:10.3390/molecules17078720
Article

Bioactivity-Guided Isolation of Ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate, an Anti-inflammatory Constituent, from Kaempferia galanga L. Extracts

1 Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden 11800, Penang, Malaysia 2 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden 11800, Penang, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 May 2012; in revised form: 24 June 2012 / Accepted: 11 July 2012 / Published: 23 July 2012
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [590 KB, Updated Version, uploaded 24 July 2012 11:19 CEST]
The original version is still available [590 KB, uploaded 23 July 2012 14:15 CEST]
Abstract: This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of Kaempferia galanga (KG) using an activity-guided approach. KG rhizomes were serially extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water. These extracts (2 g/kg each) were tested for their ability to inhibit carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. The chloroform extract was found to exert the highest inhibition (42.9%) compared to control (p < 0.001), hence it was further fractionated by washing serially with hexane, hexane-chloroform (1:1) and chloroform. The chloroform fraction (1 g/kg) showed the highest inhibitory effect (51.9%, p < 0.001) on carrageenan-induced edema. This chloroform fraction was further fractionated with hexane-chloroform (1:3) and chloroform, and of the two fractions, the hexane-chloroform sub-fraction was the most effective in inhibiting edema (53.7%, p < 0.001). GC-MS analysis of the active sub-fraction identified ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate (EPMC) as the major component, which was re-crystallized. EPMC dose-dependently inhibited carrageenan-induced edema with an MIC of 100 mg/kg. Moreover, in an in vitro study, EPMC non-selectively inhibited the activities of cyclooxygenases 1 and 2, with IC50 values of 1.12 µM and 0.83 µM respectively. These results validate the anti-inflammatory activity of KG which may be exerted by the inhibition of cyclooxygenases 1 and 2. EPMC isolated from this plant may be the active anti-inflammatory agent.
Keywords: ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate; carrageenan-induced edema; cyclooxygenase; Kaempferia galanga; anti-inflammatory activity

Article Statistics

Load and display the download statistics.

Citations to this Article

Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Umar, M.I.; Asmawi, M.Z.; Sadikun, A.; Atangwho, I.J.; Yam, M.F.; Altaf, R.; Ahmed, A. Bioactivity-Guided Isolation of Ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate, an Anti-inflammatory Constituent, from Kaempferia galanga L. Extracts. Molecules 2012, 17, 8720-8734.

AMA Style

Umar MI, Asmawi MZ, Sadikun A, Atangwho IJ, Yam MF, Altaf R, Ahmed A. Bioactivity-Guided Isolation of Ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate, an Anti-inflammatory Constituent, from Kaempferia galanga L. Extracts. Molecules. 2012; 17(7):8720-8734.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Umar, Muhammad Ihtisham; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Sadikun, Amirin; Atangwho, Item J.; Yam, Mun Fei; Altaf, Rabia; Ahmed, Ashfaq. 2012. "Bioactivity-Guided Isolation of Ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate, an Anti-inflammatory Constituent, from Kaempferia galanga L. Extracts." Molecules 17, no. 7: 8720-8734.

Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert