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Molecular Cloning, Characterization and Expression of the Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase Gene from Juglans regia
National Engineering Laboratory for Tree Breeding, Key Laboratory of Genetics and Breeding in Forest Trees and Ornamental Plants, Ministry of Education, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
College of Horticulture and Gardening, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434025, Hubei, China
College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
Hubei Key Laboratory of Economic Forest Germplasm Improvement and Resources Comprehensive Utilization, Huanggang Normal University, Huanggang 438000, Hubei, China
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 May 2012; in revised form: 11 June 2012 / Accepted: 11 June 2012 / Published: 26 June 2012
Abstract: Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is the first key enzyme of the phenypropanoid pathway. A full-length cDNA of PAL gene was isolated from Juglans regia for the first time, and designated as JrPAL. The full-length cDNA of the JrPAL gene contained a 1935bp open reading frame encoding a 645-amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of about 70.4 kD and isoelectric point (pI) of 6.7. The deduced JrPAL protein showed high identities with other plant PALs. Molecular modeling of JrPAL showed that the 3D model of JrPAL was similar to that of PAL protein from Petroselinum crispum (PcPAL), implying that JrPAL may have similar functions with PcPAL. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that JrPAL shared the same evolutionary ancestor of other PALs and had a closer relationship with other angiosperm species. Transcription analysis revealed that JrPAL was expressed in all tested tissues including roots, stems, and leaves, with the highest transcription level being found in roots. Expression profiling analyses by real-time PCR revealed that JrPAL expression was induced by a variety of abiotic and biotic stresses, including UV-B, wounding, cold, abscisic acid and salicylic acid.
Keywords: phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL); Juglans regia; molecular cloning; expression pattern
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Xu, F.; Deng, G.; Cheng, S.; Zhang, W.; Huang, X.; Li, L.; Cheng, H.; Rong, X.; Li, J. Molecular Cloning, Characterization and Expression of the Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase Gene from Juglans regia. Molecules 2012, 17, 7810-7823.
Xu F, Deng G, Cheng S, Zhang W, Huang X, Li L, Cheng H, Rong X, Li J. Molecular Cloning, Characterization and Expression of the Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase Gene from Juglans regia. Molecules. 2012; 17(7):7810-7823.
Xu, Feng; Deng, Guang; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Zhang, Weiwei; Huang, Xiaohua; Li, Linling; Cheng, Hua; Rong, Xiaofeng; Li, Jinbao. 2012. "Molecular Cloning, Characterization and Expression of the Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase Gene from Juglans regia." Molecules 17, no. 7: 7810-7823.