Molecules 2012, 17(6), 6997-7009; doi:10.3390/molecules17066997
Article

In Vitro, in Situ and in Vivo Studies on the Anticandidal Activity of Cassia fistula Seed Extract

1,2, 1, 3,* email and 2,* email
Received: 24 April 2012; in revised form: 23 May 2012 / Accepted: 25 May 2012 / Published: 7 June 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Cassia fistula seeds have many therapeutic uses in traditional medicine practice. The present investigation was undertaken to demonstrate the anticandidal activity of the C. fistula seed extract at ultra-structural level through transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. The effect of seed extract on the growth profile of the Candida albicans was examined via time-kill assays and in vivo efficacy of the extract was tested in an animal model. In addition, the anticandidal effect of seed extract was further evaluated by microscopic observations using SEM and TEM to determine any major alterations in the ultrastructure of C. albicans. The complete inhibition of C. albicans growth was shown by C. fistula seed extract at 6.25 mg/mL concentration. The time-kill assay suggested that C. fistula seed extract had completely inhibited the growth of C. albicans and also exhibited prolonged anti-yeast activity. The SEM and TEM observations carried out to distinguish the metamorphosis in the morphology of control and C. fistula seed extract-treated C. albicans cells revealed the notable effect on the outer cell wall and cytoplasmic content of the C. albicans and complete collapse of yeast cell exposed to seed extract at concentration 6.25 mg/mL at 36 h. The in vitro time-kill study performed using the leaf extract at 1/2, 1 or 2 times of the MIC significantly inhibited the yeast growth with a noticeable drop in optical density (OD) of yeast culture, thus confirming the fungicidal effect of the extract on C. albicans. In addition, in vivo antifungal activity studies on candidiasis in mice showed a 6-fold decrease in C. albicans in kidneys and blood samples in the groups of animals treated with the extract (2.5 g/kg body weight). The results suggested that the C. fistula seed extract possessed good anticandidal activity and is a potential candidate for the development of anticandidal agents.
Keywords: Candida albicans; Cassia fistula seed; anticandidal activity; scanning electron microscope; transmission electron microscope
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [1603 KB, uploaded 18 June 2014 19:49 CEST]

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Jothy, S.L.; Zakariah, Z.; Chen, Y.; Sasidharan, S. In Vitro, in Situ and in Vivo Studies on the Anticandidal Activity of Cassia fistula Seed Extract. Molecules 2012, 17, 6997-7009.

AMA Style

Jothy SL, Zakariah Z, Chen Y, Sasidharan S. In Vitro, in Situ and in Vivo Studies on the Anticandidal Activity of Cassia fistula Seed Extract. Molecules. 2012; 17(6):6997-7009.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jothy, Subramanion L.; Zakariah, Zuraini; Chen, Yeng; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan. 2012. "In Vitro, in Situ and in Vivo Studies on the Anticandidal Activity of Cassia fistula Seed Extract." Molecules 17, no. 6: 6997-7009.

Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert