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Identification of Volatile Components of Liverwort (Porella cordaeana) Extracts Using GC/MS-SPME and Their Antimicrobial Activity
Institute of Botany and Botanical Garden “Jevremovac”, Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
Department of Food Science, University of Bologna, Via Fanin 46, 40127 Bologna, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 May 2012; in revised form: 29 May 2012 / Accepted: 1 June 2012 / Published: 6 June 2012
Abstract: Chemical constituents of liverwort (Porella cordaeana) extracts have been identified using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). The methanol, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts were rich in terpenoids such as sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (53.12%, 51.68%, 23.16%), and monoterpene hydrocarbons (22.83%, 18.90%, 23.36%), respectively. The dominant compounds in the extracts were β-phellandrene (15.54%, 13.66%, 12.10%) and β-caryophyllene (10.72%, 8.29%, 7.79%, respectively). The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was evaluated against eleven food microorganisms using the microdilution and disc diffusion methods. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) varied from 0.50 to 2.00 mg/mL for yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae 635, Zygosacharomyces bailii 45, Aerobasidium pullulans L6F, Pichia membranaefaciens OC 71, Pichia membranaefaciens OC 70, Pichia anomala CBS 5759, Pichia anomala DBVPG 3003 and Yarrowia lipolytica RO13), and from 1.00 to 3.00 mg/mL for bacterial strains (Salmonella enteritidis 155, Escherichia coli 555 and Listeria monocytogenes 56Ly). Methanol extract showed better activity in comparison with ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts. High percentages of monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons could be responsible for the better antimicrobial activity.
Keywords: liverwort; Porella cordaeana; GC/MS-SPME; antimicrobial activity; food microorganisms
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Bukvicki, D.; Gottardi, D.; Veljic, M.; Marin, P.D.; Vannini, L.; Guerzoni, M.E. Identification of Volatile Components of Liverwort (Porella cordaeana) Extracts Using GC/MS-SPME and Their Antimicrobial Activity. Molecules 2012, 17, 6982-6995.
Bukvicki D, Gottardi D, Veljic M, Marin PD, Vannini L, Guerzoni ME. Identification of Volatile Components of Liverwort (Porella cordaeana) Extracts Using GC/MS-SPME and Their Antimicrobial Activity. Molecules. 2012; 17(6):6982-6995.
Bukvicki, Danka; Gottardi, Davide; Veljic, Milan; Marin, Petar D.; Vannini, Lucia; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta. 2012. "Identification of Volatile Components of Liverwort (Porella cordaeana) Extracts Using GC/MS-SPME and Their Antimicrobial Activity." Molecules 17, no. 6: 6982-6995.