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Eugenol—From the Remote Maluku Islands to the International Market Place: A Review of a Remarkable and Versatile Molecule
Molecules 2012, 17(6), 6982-6995; doi:10.3390/molecules17066982
Article

Identification of Volatile Components of Liverwort (Porella cordaeana) Extracts Using GC/MS-SPME and Their Antimicrobial Activity

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Received: 7 May 2012; in revised form: 29 May 2012 / Accepted: 1 June 2012 / Published: 6 June 2012
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Abstract: Chemical constituents of liverwort (Porella cordaeana) extracts have been identified using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). The methanol, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts were rich in terpenoids such as sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (53.12%, 51.68%, 23.16%), and monoterpene hydrocarbons (22.83%, 18.90%, 23.36%), respectively. The dominant compounds in the extracts were β-phellandrene (15.54%, 13.66%, 12.10%) and β-caryophyllene (10.72%, 8.29%, 7.79%, respectively). The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was evaluated against eleven food microorganisms using the microdilution and disc diffusion methods. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) varied from 0.50 to 2.00 mg/mL for yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae 635, Zygosacharomyces bailii 45, Aerobasidium pullulans L6F, Pichia membranaefaciens OC 71, Pichia membranaefaciens OC 70, Pichia anomala CBS 5759, Pichia anomala DBVPG 3003 and Yarrowia lipolytica RO13), and from 1.00 to 3.00 mg/mL for bacterial strains (Salmonella enteritidis 155, Escherichia coli 555 and Listeria monocytogenes 56Ly). Methanol extract showed better activity in comparison with ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts. High percentages of monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons could be responsible for the better antimicrobial activity.
Keywords: liverwort; Porella cordaeana; GC/MS-SPME; antimicrobial activity; food microorganisms liverwort; Porella cordaeana; GC/MS-SPME; antimicrobial activity; food microorganisms
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bukvicki, D.; Gottardi, D.; Veljic, M.; Marin, P.D.; Vannini, L.; Guerzoni, M.E. Identification of Volatile Components of Liverwort (Porella cordaeana) Extracts Using GC/MS-SPME and Their Antimicrobial Activity. Molecules 2012, 17, 6982-6995.

AMA Style

Bukvicki D, Gottardi D, Veljic M, Marin PD, Vannini L, Guerzoni ME. Identification of Volatile Components of Liverwort (Porella cordaeana) Extracts Using GC/MS-SPME and Their Antimicrobial Activity. Molecules. 2012; 17(6):6982-6995.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bukvicki, Danka; Gottardi, Davide; Veljic, Milan; Marin, Petar D.; Vannini, Lucia; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta. 2012. "Identification of Volatile Components of Liverwort (Porella cordaeana) Extracts Using GC/MS-SPME and Their Antimicrobial Activity." Molecules 17, no. 6: 6982-6995.


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