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Molecules 2012, 17(6), 6331-6347; doi:10.3390/molecules17066331

Phenolics and Flavonoids Compounds, Phenylanine Ammonia Lyase and Antioxidant Activity Responses to Elevated CO2 in Labisia pumila (Myrisinaceae)

Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 March 2012 / Revised: 17 May 2012 / Accepted: 21 May 2012 / Published: 25 May 2012
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Abstract

A split plot 3 × 3 experiment was designed to examine the impact of three concentrations of CO2 (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol·mol−1) on the phenolic and flavonoid compound profiles, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and antioxidant activity in three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata) after 15 weeks of exposure. HPLC analysis revealed a strong influence of increased CO2 concentration on the modification of phenolic and flavonoid profiles, whose intensity depended on the interaction between CO2 levels and L. pumila varieties. Gallic acid and quercetin were the most abundant phenolics and flavonoids commonly present in all the varieties. With elevated CO2 (1,200 µmol·mol−1) exposure, gallic acid increased tremendously, especially in var. alata and pumila (101–111%), whilst a large quercetin increase was noted in var. lanceolata (260%), followed closely by alata (201%). Kaempferol, although detected under ambient CO2 conditions, was undetected in all varieties after exposure. Instead, caffeic acid was enhanced tremendously in var. alata (338~1,100%) and pumila (298~433%). Meanwhile, pyragallol and rutin were only seen in var. alata (810 µg·g−1 DW) and pumila (25 µg·g−1 DW), respectively, under ambient conditions; but the former compound went undetected in all varieties while rutin continued to increase by 262% after CO2 enrichment. Interestingly, naringenin that was present in all varieties under ambient conditions went undetected under enrichment, except for var. pumila where it was enhanced by 1,100%. PAL activity, DPPH and FRAP also increased with increasing CO2 levels implying the possible improvement of health-promoting quality of Malaysian L. pumila under high CO2 enrichment conditions.
Keywords: CO2 enrichment; phenolics; flavonoids; phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity (PAL); free radical scavenging (DPPH); ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) CO2 enrichment; phenolics; flavonoids; phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity (PAL); free radical scavenging (DPPH); ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jaafar, H.Z.; Ibrahim, M.H.; Karimi, E. Phenolics and Flavonoids Compounds, Phenylanine Ammonia Lyase and Antioxidant Activity Responses to Elevated CO2 in Labisia pumila (Myrisinaceae). Molecules 2012, 17, 6331-6347.

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