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Molecules 2012, 17(5), 5255-5268; doi:10.3390/molecules17055255
Article

Mutagenicity of Flavonoids Assayed by Bacterial Reverse Mutation (Ames) Test

1, 2,3, 3 and 1,*
Received: 13 April 2012; in revised form: 25 April 2012 / Accepted: 27 April 2012 / Published: 7 May 2012
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Compounds)
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Abstract: The mutagenicity of ten flavonoids was assayed by the Ames test, in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100 and TA102, with the aim of establishing hydroxylation pattern-mutagenicity relationship profiles. The compounds assessed were: quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, fisetin, chrysin, galangin, flavone, 3-hydroxyflavone, 5-hydroxyflavone and 7-hydroxyflavone. In the Ames assay, quercetin acted directly and its mutagenicity increased with metabolic activation. In the presence of S9 mix, kaempferol and galangin were mutagenic in the TA98 strain and kaempferol showed signs of mutagenicity in the other strains. The absence of hydroxyl groups, as in flavone, only signs of mutagenicity were shown in strain TA102, after metabolization and, among monohydroxylated flavones (3-hydroxyflavone, 5-hydroxyflavone and 7-hydroxyflavone), the presence of hydroxyl groups only resulted in minor changes. Luteolin and fisetin also showed signs of mutagenicity in strain TA102. Finally, chrysin, which has only two hydroxy groups, at the 5-OH and 7-OH positions, also did not induce mutagenic activity in any of the bacterial strains used, under either activation condition. All the flavonoids were tested at concentrations varying from 2.6 to 30.7 nmol/plate for galangin and 12.1 to 225.0 nmol/plate for other flavonoids. In light of the above, it is necessary to clarify the conditions and the mechanisms that mediate the biological effects of flavonoids before treating them as therapeutical agents, since some compounds can be biotransformed into more genotoxic products; as is the case for galangin, kaempferol and quercetin.
Keywords: mutagenicity; Ames test; flavonoids mutagenicity; Ames test; flavonoids
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Resende, F.A.; Vilegas, W.; dos Santos, L.C.; Varanda, E.A. Mutagenicity of Flavonoids Assayed by Bacterial Reverse Mutation (Ames) Test. Molecules 2012, 17, 5255-5268.

AMA Style

Resende FA, Vilegas W, dos Santos LC, Varanda EA. Mutagenicity of Flavonoids Assayed by Bacterial Reverse Mutation (Ames) Test. Molecules. 2012; 17(5):5255-5268.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Resende, Flavia Aparecida; Vilegas, Wagner; dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; Varanda, Eliana Aparecida. 2012. "Mutagenicity of Flavonoids Assayed by Bacterial Reverse Mutation (Ames) Test." Molecules 17, no. 5: 5255-5268.



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