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Molecules 2012, 17(5), 5269-5288; doi:10.3390/molecules17055269
Article

Kale Extract Increases Glutathione Levels in V79 Cells, but Does not Protect Them against Acute Toxicity Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide

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Received: 9 April 2012; in revised form: 24 April 2012 / Accepted: 25 April 2012 / Published: 7 May 2012
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Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the antioxidant potential of extracts of Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. (kale) and several materials of Pieris brassicae L., a common pest of Brassica cultures using a cellular model with hamster lung fibroblast (V79 cells) under quiescent conditions and subjected to H2O2-induced oxidative stress. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and glutathione was determined by the 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB)-oxidized glutathione (GSSG) reductase recycling assay. The phenolic composition of the extracts was also established by HPLC-DAD. They presented acylated and non acylated flavonoid glycosides, some of them sulfated, and hydroxycinnamic acyl gentiobiosides. All extracts were cytotoxic by themselves at high concentrations and failed to protect V79 cells against H2O2 acute toxicity. No relationship between phenolic composition and cytotoxicity of the extracts was found. Rather, a significant increase in glutathione was observed in cells exposed to kale extract, which contained the highest amount and variety of flavonoids. It can be concluded that although flavonoids-rich extracts have the ability to increase cellular antioxidant defenses, the use of extracts of kale and P. brassicae materials by pharmaceutical or food industries, may constitute an insult to health, especially to debilitated individuals, if high doses are consumed.
Keywords: Brassica oleracea var. acephala; Pieris brassicae; phenolic compounds; V79 cells; oxidative stress; glutathione status Brassica oleracea var. acephala; Pieris brassicae; phenolic compounds; V79 cells; oxidative stress; glutathione status
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fernandes, F.; Sousa, C.; Ferreres, F.; Valentão, P.; Remião, F.; Pereira, J.A.; Andrade, P.B. Kale Extract Increases Glutathione Levels in V79 Cells, but Does not Protect Them against Acute Toxicity Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide. Molecules 2012, 17, 5269-5288.

AMA Style

Fernandes F, Sousa C, Ferreres F, Valentão P, Remião F, Pereira JA, Andrade PB. Kale Extract Increases Glutathione Levels in V79 Cells, but Does not Protect Them against Acute Toxicity Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide. Molecules. 2012; 17(5):5269-5288.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fernandes, Fátima; Sousa, Carla; Ferreres, Federico; Valentão, Patrícia; Remião, Fernando; Pereira, José A.; Andrade, Paula B. 2012. "Kale Extract Increases Glutathione Levels in V79 Cells, but Does not Protect Them against Acute Toxicity Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide." Molecules 17, no. 5: 5269-5288.


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