Abstract: Girinimbine, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from the stem bark of Murraya koenigii was tested for the in vitro anti-tumour promoting and antioxidant activities. Anti-tumour promoting activity was determined by assaying the capability of this compound to inhibit the expression of early antigen of Epstein-Barr virus (EA-EBV) in Raji cells that was induced by the tumour promoter, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The concentration of this compound that gave an inhibition rate at fifty percent was 6.0 µg/mL and was not cytotoxic to the cells. Immunoblotting analysis of the expression of EA-EBV showed that girinimbine was able to suppress restricted early antigen (EA-R). However, diffused early antigen (EA-D) was partially suppressed when used at 32.0 µg/mL. Girinimbine exhibited a very strong antioxidant activity as compared to a-tocopherol and was able to inhibit superoxide generation in the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced differentiated premyelocytic HL-60 cells more than 95%, when treated with the compound at 5.3 and 26.3 µg/mL, respectively. However girinimbine failed to scavenge the stable diphenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH)-free radical.
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Kok, Y.Y.; Mooi, L.Y.; Ahmad, K.; Sukari, M.A.; Mat, N.; Rahmani, M.; Ali, A.M. Anti-Tumour Promoting Activity and Antioxidant Properties of Girinimbine Isolated from the Stem Bark of Murraya koenigii S.. Molecules 2012, 17, 4651-4660.
Kok YY, Mooi LY, Ahmad K, Sukari MA, Mat N, Rahmani M, Ali AM. Anti-Tumour Promoting Activity and Antioxidant Properties of Girinimbine Isolated from the Stem Bark of Murraya koenigii S.. Molecules. 2012; 17(4):4651-4660.
Kok, Yih Yih; Mooi, Lim Yang; Ahmad, Kartini; Sukari, Mohd Aspollah; Mat, Nashriyah; Rahmani, Mawardi; Ali, Abdul Manaf. 2012. "Anti-Tumour Promoting Activity and Antioxidant Properties of Girinimbine Isolated from the Stem Bark of Murraya koenigii S.." Molecules 17, no. 4: 4651-4660.