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Molecules 2012, 17(4), 4651-4660; doi:10.3390/molecules17044651
Article

Anti-Tumour Promoting Activity and Antioxidant Properties of Girinimbine Isolated from the Stem Bark of Murraya koenigii S.

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Received: 26 December 2011; in revised form: 5 April 2012 / Accepted: 11 April 2012 / Published: 20 April 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
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Abstract: Girinimbine, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from the stem bark of Murraya koenigii was tested for the in vitro anti-tumour promoting and antioxidant activities. Anti-tumour promoting activity was determined by assaying the capability of this compound to inhibit the expression of early antigen of Epstein-Barr virus (EA-EBV) in Raji cells that was induced by the tumour promoter, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The concentration of this compound that gave an inhibition rate at fifty percent was 6.0 µg/mL and was not cytotoxic to the cells. Immunoblotting analysis of the expression of EA-EBV showed that girinimbine was able to suppress restricted early antigen (EA-R). However, diffused early antigen (EA-D) was partially suppressed when used at 32.0 µg/mL. Girinimbine exhibited a very strong antioxidant activity as compared to a-tocopherol and was able to inhibit superoxide generation in the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced differentiated premyelocytic HL-60 cells more than 95%, when treated with the compound at 5.3 and 26.3 µg/mL, respectively. However girinimbine failed to scavenge the stable diphenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH)-free radical.
Keywords: Murraya koenigii; girinimbine; anti-tumour promoting activity; antioxidative; superoxide Murraya koenigii; girinimbine; anti-tumour promoting activity; antioxidative; superoxide
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kok, Y.Y.; Mooi, L.Y.; Ahmad, K.; Sukari, M.A.; Mat, N.; Rahmani, M.; Ali, A.M. Anti-Tumour Promoting Activity and Antioxidant Properties of Girinimbine Isolated from the Stem Bark of Murraya koenigii S.. Molecules 2012, 17, 4651-4660.

AMA Style

Kok YY, Mooi LY, Ahmad K, Sukari MA, Mat N, Rahmani M, Ali AM. Anti-Tumour Promoting Activity and Antioxidant Properties of Girinimbine Isolated from the Stem Bark of Murraya koenigii S.. Molecules. 2012; 17(4):4651-4660.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kok, Yih Yih; Mooi, Lim Yang; Ahmad, Kartini; Sukari, Mohd Aspollah; Mat, Nashriyah; Rahmani, Mawardi; Ali, Abdul Manaf. 2012. "Anti-Tumour Promoting Activity and Antioxidant Properties of Girinimbine Isolated from the Stem Bark of Murraya koenigii S.." Molecules 17, no. 4: 4651-4660.


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