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Molecules 2012, 17(4), 4651-4660; doi:10.3390/molecules17044651
Article

Anti-Tumour Promoting Activity and Antioxidant Properties of Girinimbine Isolated from the Stem Bark of Murraya koenigii S.

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1 Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia 2 Department of Human Biology, International Medical University, 126 Jalan Jalil Perkasa 19, Bukit Jalil, 57000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 3 Department of Preclinical Sciences, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Lot PT21144, Jalan Sungai Long, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia 4 Department of Chemistry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia 5 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia 6 Faculty of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Gong Badak Campus, 21300 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 December 2011 / Revised: 5 April 2012 / Accepted: 11 April 2012 / Published: 20 April 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract

Girinimbine, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from the stem bark of Murraya koenigii was tested for the in vitro anti-tumour promoting and antioxidant activities. Anti-tumour promoting activity was determined by assaying the capability of this compound to inhibit the expression of early antigen of Epstein-Barr virus (EA-EBV) in Raji cells that was induced by the tumour promoter, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The concentration of this compound that gave an inhibition rate at fifty percent was 6.0 µg/mL and was not cytotoxic to the cells. Immunoblotting analysis of the expression of EA-EBV showed that girinimbine was able to suppress restricted early antigen (EA-R). However, diffused early antigen (EA-D) was partially suppressed when used at 32.0 µg/mL. Girinimbine exhibited a very strong antioxidant activity as compared to a-tocopherol and was able to inhibit superoxide generation in the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced differentiated premyelocytic HL-60 cells more than 95%, when treated with the compound at 5.3 and 26.3 µg/mL, respectively. However girinimbine failed to scavenge the stable diphenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH)-free radical.
Keywords: Murraya koenigii; girinimbine; anti-tumour promoting activity; antioxidative; superoxide Murraya koenigii; girinimbine; anti-tumour promoting activity; antioxidative; superoxide
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Kok, Y.Y.; Mooi, L.Y.; Ahmad, K.; Sukari, M.A.; Mat, N.; Rahmani, M.; Ali, A.M. Anti-Tumour Promoting Activity and Antioxidant Properties of Girinimbine Isolated from the Stem Bark of Murraya koenigii S.. Molecules 2012, 17, 4651-4660.

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