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Anti-Tumour Promoting Activity and Antioxidant Properties of Girinimbine Isolated from the Stem Bark of Murraya koenigii S.
Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Department of Human Biology, International Medical University, 126 Jalan Jalil Perkasa 19, Bukit Jalil, 57000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Department of Preclinical Sciences, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Lot PT21144, Jalan Sungai Long, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia
Department of Chemistry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia
Faculty of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Gong Badak Campus, 21300 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 December 2011; in revised form: 5 April 2012 / Accepted: 11 April 2012 / Published: 20 April 2012
Abstract: Girinimbine, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from the stem bark of Murraya koenigii was tested for the in vitro anti-tumour promoting and antioxidant activities. Anti-tumour promoting activity was determined by assaying the capability of this compound to inhibit the expression of early antigen of Epstein-Barr virus (EA-EBV) in Raji cells that was induced by the tumour promoter, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The concentration of this compound that gave an inhibition rate at fifty percent was 6.0 µg/mL and was not cytotoxic to the cells. Immunoblotting analysis of the expression of EA-EBV showed that girinimbine was able to suppress restricted early antigen (EA-R). However, diffused early antigen (EA-D) was partially suppressed when used at 32.0 µg/mL. Girinimbine exhibited a very strong antioxidant activity as compared to a-tocopherol and was able to inhibit superoxide generation in the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced differentiated premyelocytic HL-60 cells more than 95%, when treated with the compound at 5.3 and 26.3 µg/mL, respectively. However girinimbine failed to scavenge the stable diphenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH)-free radical.
Keywords: Murraya koenigii; girinimbine; anti-tumour promoting activity; antioxidative; superoxide
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MDPI and ACS Style
Kok, Y.Y.; Mooi, L.Y.; Ahmad, K.; Sukari, M.A.; Mat, N.; Rahmani, M.; Ali, A.M. Anti-Tumour Promoting Activity and Antioxidant Properties of Girinimbine Isolated from the Stem Bark of Murraya koenigii S.. Molecules 2012, 17, 4651-4660.
Kok YY, Mooi LY, Ahmad K, Sukari MA, Mat N, Rahmani M, Ali AM. Anti-Tumour Promoting Activity and Antioxidant Properties of Girinimbine Isolated from the Stem Bark of Murraya koenigii S.. Molecules. 2012; 17(4):4651-4660.
Kok, Yih Yih; Mooi, Lim Yang; Ahmad, Kartini; Sukari, Mohd Aspollah; Mat, Nashriyah; Rahmani, Mawardi; Ali, Abdul Manaf. 2012. "Anti-Tumour Promoting Activity and Antioxidant Properties of Girinimbine Isolated from the Stem Bark of Murraya koenigii S.." Molecules 17, no. 4: 4651-4660.