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Molecules 2012, 17(4), 4357-4372; doi:10.3390/molecules17044357

Bio-Functional Constituents from the Stems of Liriodendron tulipifera

1, 1, 2, 3, 2,*  and 3,*
Received: 7 March 2012 / Revised: 29 March 2012 / Accepted: 31 March 2012 / Published: 10 April 2012
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Four known compounds have been isolated from the stems of Liriodendron tulipifera, and the structures of these pure constituents were determined using spectroscopic analysis. Isolated compounds were screened for free radical scavenging ability, metal chelating power assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). The anti-tyrosinase effects of L. tulipifera compounds were calculated the inhibition of hydroxylation of L-tyrosine to L-dopa according to an in vitro mushroom tyrosinase assay. The study also examined the bio-effects of the four compounds on the human melanoma A375.S2, and showed that liriodenine (1) and (-)-norglaucine (4) significantly inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cells in the cell viability assay. Wound healing results indicated that liriodenine (1), (-)-glaucine (3) and (-)-norglaucine (4) exerted anti-migration potential. Interestingly, (-)-glaucine (3), neither liriodenine (1) nor (-)-norglaucine (4) showed promising anti-migration potential without inducing significant cytotoxicity. Furthermore, a dramatically increased level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected from (-)-glaucine (3). The cell cycle assessment demonstrated a moderate G2/M accumulation by (-)-glaucine (3). The above results revealed the anti-cancer effects of L. tulipifera compounds, especially on the anti-migration ability indicating the promising chemopreventive agents to human skin melanoma cells.
Keywords: L. tulipifera; liriodenine; (-)-anonaine; (-)-glaucine; (-)-norglaucine; antioxidant; tyrosinase; melanoma; anti-migration; ROS L. tulipifera; liriodenine; (-)-anonaine; (-)-glaucine; (-)-norglaucine; antioxidant; tyrosinase; melanoma; anti-migration; ROS
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Chiu, C.-C.; Chou, H.-L.; Wu, P.-F.; Chen, H.-L.; Wang, H.-M.; Chen, C.-Y. Bio-Functional Constituents from the Stems of Liriodendron tulipifera. Molecules 2012, 17, 4357-4372.

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