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Molecules 2012, 17(2), 1652-1664; doi:10.3390/molecules17021652

Palynological Origin, Phenolic Content, and Antioxidant Properties of Honeybee-Collected Pollen from Bahia, Brazil

1, 1, 2, 2, 3 and 3,*
1 Laboratório de Tecnologia Farmaceutica, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, CEP 58051-970, Paraiba, Brazil 2 Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, CEP 44036-900, Bahia, Brazil 3 Departamento de Ciencias Moleculares, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, CEP 52171-900, Pernambuco, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 December 2011 / Revised: 16 January 2012 / Accepted: 26 January 2012 / Published: 7 February 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
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The aim of this study was to determine the palynological origin, phenolic and flavonoid content, and antioxidant properties of twenty-five samples of bee pollen harvested during a nine-month period (February–November) from the Canavieiras municipality (northeastern Brazil). Of the 25 samples analyzed, only two (February 01 and 02) were heterofloral. The predominant pollens in the samples analyzed during that month were: Cecropia, Eucalyptus, Elaeis, Mimosa pudica, Eupatorium, and Scoparia. Ethyl acetate fractions were analyzed by HPLC-DAD. The flavonoids isoquercetin, myricetin, tricetin, quercetin, luteolin, selagin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin were detected. The flavonoid present in all 22 samples was isolated and identified as isorhamnetin 3-O-b-neohesperidoside. The total phenolic contents determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent ranged from 41.5 to 213.2 mg GAE/g. Antioxidant activities based on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis 3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), and Fe2+ ion chelating activity assays were observed for all extracts, and correlated with the total phenolic content.
Keywords: bee pollen; antioxidant; palynological analysis; flavonoids bee pollen; antioxidant; palynological analysis; flavonoids
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Freire, K.R.L.; Lins, A.C.S.; Dórea, M.C.; Santos, F.A.R.; Camara, C.A.; Silva, T.M.S. Palynological Origin, Phenolic Content, and Antioxidant Properties of Honeybee-Collected Pollen from Bahia, Brazil. Molecules 2012, 17, 1652-1664.

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