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Palynological Origin, Phenolic Content, and Antioxidant Properties of Honeybee-Collected Pollen from Bahia, Brazil
Laboratório de Tecnologia Farmaceutica, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, CEP 58051-970, Paraiba, Brazil
Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, CEP 44036-900, Bahia, Brazil
Departamento de Ciencias Moleculares, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, CEP 52171-900, Pernambuco, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 December 2011; in revised form: 16 January 2012 / Accepted: 26 January 2012 / Published: 7 February 2012
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the palynological origin, phenolic and flavonoid content, and antioxidant properties of twenty-five samples of bee pollen harvested during a nine-month period (February–November) from the Canavieiras municipality (northeastern Brazil). Of the 25 samples analyzed, only two (February 01 and 02) were heterofloral. The predominant pollens in the samples analyzed during that month were: Cecropia, Eucalyptus, Elaeis, Mimosa pudica, Eupatorium, and Scoparia. Ethyl acetate fractions were analyzed by HPLC-DAD. The flavonoids isoquercetin, myricetin, tricetin, quercetin, luteolin, selagin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin were detected. The flavonoid present in all 22 samples was isolated and identified as isorhamnetin 3-O-b-neohesperidoside. The total phenolic contents determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent ranged from 41.5 to 213.2 mg GAE/g. Antioxidant activities based on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis 3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), and Fe2+ ion chelating activity assays were observed for all extracts, and correlated with the total phenolic content.
Keywords: bee pollen; antioxidant; palynological analysis; flavonoids
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Freire, K.R.L.; Lins, A.C.S.; Dórea, M.C.; Santos, F.A.R.; Camara, C.A.; Silva, T.M.S. Palynological Origin, Phenolic Content, and Antioxidant Properties of Honeybee-Collected Pollen from Bahia, Brazil. Molecules 2012, 17, 1652-1664.
Freire KRL, Lins ACS, Dórea MC, Santos FAR, Camara CA, Silva TMS. Palynological Origin, Phenolic Content, and Antioxidant Properties of Honeybee-Collected Pollen from Bahia, Brazil. Molecules. 2012; 17(2):1652-1664.
Freire, Kristerson R. L.; Lins, Antonio C. S.; Dórea, Marcos C.; Santos, Francisco A. R.; Camara, Celso A.; Silva, Tania M. S. 2012. "Palynological Origin, Phenolic Content, and Antioxidant Properties of Honeybee-Collected Pollen from Bahia, Brazil." Molecules 17, no. 2: 1652-1664.