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Molecules 2012, 17(12), 14995-15012; doi:10.3390/molecules171214995
Article

Structural Changes of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) after Fungal and Phosphoric Acid Pretreatment

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1 Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Gadjah Mada University, 55281 Yogyakarta, Indonesia 2 Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Gothenburg, Sweden 3 School of Engineering, University of Borås, 50190 Borås, Sweden 4 Department of Chemical and Polymer Engineering, Lagos State University, PMB 1012 Epe, Nigeria 5 Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Gadjah Mada University, 55281 Yogyakarta, Indonesia 6 Department of Chemical Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, 55281 Yogyakarta, Indonesia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 November 2012 / Revised: 11 December 2012 / Accepted: 13 December 2012 / Published: 17 December 2012
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Abstract

Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) was pretreated using white-rot fungus Pleurotus floridanus, phosphoric acid or their combination, and the results were evaluated based on the biomass components, and its structural and morphological changes. The carbohydrate losses after fungal, phosphoric acid, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments were 7.89%, 35.65%, and 33.77%, respectively. The pretreatments changed the hydrogen bonds of cellulose and linkages between lignin and carbohydrate, which is associated with crystallinity of cellulose of OPEFB. Lateral Order Index (LOI) of OPEFB with no pretreatment, with fungal, phosphoric acid, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments were 2.77, 1.42, 0.67, and 0.60, respectively. Phosphoric acid pretreatment showed morphological changes of OPEFB, indicated by the damage of fibre structure into smaller particle size. The fungal-, phosphoric acid-, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments have improved the digestibility of OPEFB’s cellulose by 4, 6.3, and 7.4 folds, respectively.
Keywords: cellulose Ib; crystallinity; digestibility; FTIR spectra; hydrogen bond; oil palm empty fruit bunch; phosphoric acid; Pleurotus floridanus; pretreatment cellulose Ib; crystallinity; digestibility; FTIR spectra; hydrogen bond; oil palm empty fruit bunch; phosphoric acid; Pleurotus floridanus; pretreatment
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Isroi; Ishola, M.M.; Millati, R.; Syamsiah, S.; Cahyanto, M.N.; Niklasson, C.; Taherzadeh, M.J. Structural Changes of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) after Fungal and Phosphoric Acid Pretreatment. Molecules 2012, 17, 14995-15012.

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