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Molecules 2012, 17(12), 14995-15012; doi:10.3390/molecules171214995
Article

Structural Changes of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) after Fungal and Phosphoric Acid Pretreatment

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Received: 16 November 2012; in revised form: 11 December 2012 / Accepted: 13 December 2012 / Published: 17 December 2012
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Abstract: Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) was pretreated using white-rot fungus Pleurotus floridanus, phosphoric acid or their combination, and the results were evaluated based on the biomass components, and its structural and morphological changes. The carbohydrate losses after fungal, phosphoric acid, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments were 7.89%, 35.65%, and 33.77%, respectively. The pretreatments changed the hydrogen bonds of cellulose and linkages between lignin and carbohydrate, which is associated with crystallinity of cellulose of OPEFB. Lateral Order Index (LOI) of OPEFB with no pretreatment, with fungal, phosphoric acid, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments were 2.77, 1.42, 0.67, and 0.60, respectively. Phosphoric acid pretreatment showed morphological changes of OPEFB, indicated by the damage of fibre structure into smaller particle size. The fungal-, phosphoric acid-, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments have improved the digestibility of OPEFB’s cellulose by 4, 6.3, and 7.4 folds, respectively.
Keywords: cellulose Ib; crystallinity; digestibility; FTIR spectra; hydrogen bond; oil palm empty fruit bunch; phosphoric acid; Pleurotus floridanus; pretreatment cellulose Ib; crystallinity; digestibility; FTIR spectra; hydrogen bond; oil palm empty fruit bunch; phosphoric acid; Pleurotus floridanus; pretreatment
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Isroi; Ishola, M.M.; Millati, R.; Syamsiah, S.; Cahyanto, M.N.; Niklasson, C.; Taherzadeh, M.J. Structural Changes of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) after Fungal and Phosphoric Acid Pretreatment. Molecules 2012, 17, 14995-15012.

AMA Style

Isroi, Ishola MM, Millati R, Syamsiah S, Cahyanto MN, Niklasson C, Taherzadeh MJ. Structural Changes of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) after Fungal and Phosphoric Acid Pretreatment. Molecules. 2012; 17(12):14995-15012.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Isroi; Ishola, Mofoluwake M.; Millati, Ria; Syamsiah, Siti; Cahyanto, Muhammad N.; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J. 2012. "Structural Changes of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) after Fungal and Phosphoric Acid Pretreatment." Molecules 17, no. 12: 14995-15012.


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