Molecules 2012, 17(12), 14995-15012; doi:10.3390/molecules171214995
Article

Structural Changes of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) after Fungal and Phosphoric Acid Pretreatment

1 Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Gadjah Mada University, 55281 Yogyakarta, Indonesia 2 Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Gothenburg, Sweden 3 School of Engineering, University of Borås, 50190 Borås, Sweden 4 Department of Chemical and Polymer Engineering, Lagos State University, PMB 1012 Epe, Nigeria 5 Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Gadjah Mada University, 55281 Yogyakarta, Indonesia 6 Department of Chemical Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, 55281 Yogyakarta, Indonesia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 November 2012; in revised form: 11 December 2012 / Accepted: 13 December 2012 / Published: 17 December 2012
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [1424 KB, Updated Version, uploaded 18 December 2012 16:32 CET]
The original version is still available [1424 KB, uploaded 17 December 2012 10:22 CET]
Abstract: Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) was pretreated using white-rot fungus Pleurotus floridanus, phosphoric acid or their combination, and the results were evaluated based on the biomass components, and its structural and morphological changes. The carbohydrate losses after fungal, phosphoric acid, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments were 7.89%, 35.65%, and 33.77%, respectively. The pretreatments changed the hydrogen bonds of cellulose and linkages between lignin and carbohydrate, which is associated with crystallinity of cellulose of OPEFB. Lateral Order Index (LOI) of OPEFB with no pretreatment, with fungal, phosphoric acid, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments were 2.77, 1.42, 0.67, and 0.60, respectively. Phosphoric acid pretreatment showed morphological changes of OPEFB, indicated by the damage of fibre structure into smaller particle size. The fungal-, phosphoric acid-, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments have improved the digestibility of OPEFB’s cellulose by 4, 6.3, and 7.4 folds, respectively.
Keywords: cellulose Ib; crystallinity; digestibility; FTIR spectra; hydrogen bond; oil palm empty fruit bunch; phosphoric acid; Pleurotus floridanus; pretreatment

Article Statistics

Load and display the download statistics.

Citations to this Article

Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Isroi; Ishola, M.M.; Millati, R.; Syamsiah, S.; Cahyanto, M.N.; Niklasson, C.; Taherzadeh, M.J. Structural Changes of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) after Fungal and Phosphoric Acid Pretreatment. Molecules 2012, 17, 14995-15012.

AMA Style

Isroi, Ishola MM, Millati R, Syamsiah S, Cahyanto MN, Niklasson C, Taherzadeh MJ. Structural Changes of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) after Fungal and Phosphoric Acid Pretreatment. Molecules. 2012; 17(12):14995-15012.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Isroi; Ishola, Mofoluwake M.; Millati, Ria; Syamsiah, Siti; Cahyanto, Muhammad N.; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J. 2012. "Structural Changes of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) after Fungal and Phosphoric Acid Pretreatment." Molecules 17, no. 12: 14995-15012.

Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert