Molecules 2012, 17(12), 14310-14322; doi:10.3390/molecules171214310
Article

Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Isohexenylnaphthazarins from Arnebia euchroma (Royle) Jonst. (Boraginaceae) Callus and Cell Suspension Culture

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Received: 13 September 2012; in revised form: 27 November 2012 / Accepted: 28 November 2012 / Published: 3 December 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
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Abstract: The phytochemical investigation of the n-hexane extract from callus and cell suspension culture of Arnebia euchroma (Royle) Jonst. resulted in the isolation of nine isohexenylnaphthazarins: deoxyalkannin (1), alkannin (2), acetylalkannin (3), isobutyrylalkannin (4), β-hydroxyisovalerylalkannin (5), 2''-(S)-α-methylbutyrylalkannin (6), propionylalkannin (7), teracrylalkannin (8) and acetylshikonin (9). Their structures were determined by MS and NMR spectroscopy. Pigments 28 are isolated for the first time from Arnebia in vitro cultures, 4 and 7 are reported in the present work as novel metabolites within the Arnebia genus, while 9 is a known constituent of both natural roots and in vitro cultures of A. euchroma. Moreover, methyl jasmonate and 1-monoglyceryl olate, palmitate and stearate are reported for the first time within the Boraginaceae family. The antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of all isolated pigment compounds were tested, revealing a very interesting profile.
Keywords: Arnebia euchroma; Boraginaceae; callus culture; cell suspension culture; isohexenylnaphthazarins; cytotoxic; antimicrobial
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MDPI and ACS Style

Damianakos, H.; Kretschmer, N.; Sykłowska-Baranek, K.; Pietrosiuk, A.; Bauer, R.; Chinou, I. Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Isohexenylnaphthazarins from Arnebia euchroma (Royle) Jonst. (Boraginaceae) Callus and Cell Suspension Culture. Molecules 2012, 17, 14310-14322.

AMA Style

Damianakos H, Kretschmer N, Sykłowska-Baranek K, Pietrosiuk A, Bauer R, Chinou I. Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Isohexenylnaphthazarins from Arnebia euchroma (Royle) Jonst. (Boraginaceae) Callus and Cell Suspension Culture. Molecules. 2012; 17(12):14310-14322.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Damianakos, Harilaos; Kretschmer, Nadine; Sykłowska-Baranek, Katarzyna; Pietrosiuk, Agnieszka; Bauer, Rudolf; Chinou, Ioanna. 2012. "Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Isohexenylnaphthazarins from Arnebia euchroma (Royle) Jonst. (Boraginaceae) Callus and Cell Suspension Culture." Molecules 17, no. 12: 14310-14322.


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