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Molecules 2012, 17(12), 13844-13855; doi:10.3390/molecules171213844
Article

Influence of Nonpolar Substances on the Extraction Efficiency of Six Alkaloids in Zoagumhwan Investigated by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography and Photodiode Array Detection

1, 2, 3, 1, 4, 5, 2, 2, 2 and 1,*
1 China Military Institute of Chinese Medicine, 302 Hospital of People's Liberation Army, 100, the 4th Ring Road, Beijing 100039, China 2 School of Chinese Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Estates Building, 10 Sassoon Road, 999077, Hong Kong 3 Yunnan Institute of Materia Medica, 22, Lengshuitang, Xishan District, Kunming, Yunnan 650111, China 4 Department of Integrative Medical Center, 302 Hospital of the People's Liberation Army 100, 4th Ring Road, Beijing 100039, China 5 Animal Laboratory Center, 302 Hospital of the People's Liberation Army, 100, 4th Ring Road, Beijing 100039, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 October 2012 / Revised: 16 November 2012 / Accepted: 19 November 2012 / Published: 22 November 2012
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Abstract

A reverse phase ultra performance liquid chromatography and photodiode array (UPLC-PDA) detection method was established for the determination of six alkaloids in Zoagumhwan (ZGW), and further for investigating the influence of nonpolar substances on the extraction efficiency of these alkaloids. The method was based on a BEH C18 (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) column and mobile phase of aqueous phosphoric acid and acetonitrile including 0.05% buffer solution under gradient elution. ZGW samples of ZGW I, II, III and IV were obtained and prepared by pre-processing the crude materials of Coptidis rhizoma and Evodiae fructus using four technologies, namely direct water decoction, removal of nonpolar substances in Evodiae fructus by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), removal of nonpolar substances in ZGW by SFE and removal of nonpolar substances in ZGW by steam distillation. The developed and validated UPLC-PDA method was precise, accurate and sensitive enough based on the facts that the six alkaloids showed good regression (r > 0.9998), the limit of detections and quantifications for six alkaloids were less than 28.8 and 94.5 ng/mL, respectively, and the recovery was in the range of 98.56%–103.24%. The sequence of the total contents of six alkaloids in these samples was ZGW II > ZGW IV > ZGW III > ZGW I. ZGW II, in which nonpolar substances, including essential oils, were firstly removed from Evodiae fructus by SFE, had the highest content of the total alkaloids, indicating that extraction efficiency of the total alkaloids could be remarkably increased after Evodiae fructus being extracted by SFE.
Keywords: alkaloids; nonpolar substances; Zoagumhwan; UPLC-PDA; extraction efficiency alkaloids; nonpolar substances; Zoagumhwan; UPLC-PDA; extraction efficiency
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Zhao, Y.; Jia, L.; Yang, H.; Wang, J.; Zhang, P.; Li, R.; Gong, M.; Luo, S.; Liu, S.; Xiao, X. Influence of Nonpolar Substances on the Extraction Efficiency of Six Alkaloids in Zoagumhwan Investigated by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography and Photodiode Array Detection. Molecules 2012, 17, 13844-13855.

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