Molecules 2012, 17(11), 12974-12983; doi:10.3390/molecules171112974
Article

Evaluation of Deoxyribonucleic Acid Toxicity Induced by the Radiopharmaceutical 99mTechnetium-Methylenediphosphonic Acid and by Stannous Chloride in Wistar Rats

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Received: 25 September 2012; in revised form: 10 October 2012 / Accepted: 25 October 2012 / Published: 1 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants 2012)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Radiopharmaceuticals are employed in patient diagnostics and disease treatments. Concerning the diagnosis aspect, technetium-99m (99mTc) is utilized to label radiopharmaceuticals for single photon computed emission tomography (SPECT) due to its physical and chemical characteristics. 99mTc fixation on pharmaceuticals depends on a reducing agent, stannous chloride (SnCl2) being the most widely-utilized. The genotoxic, clastogenic and anegenic properties of the 99mTc-MDP(methylene diphosphonate used for bone SPECT) and SnCl2 were evaluated in Wistar rat blood cells using the Comet assay and micronucleus test. The experimental approach was to endovenously administer NaCl 0.9% (negative control), cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg b.w. (positive control), SnCl2 500 μg/mL or 99mTc-MDP to animals and blood samples taken immediately before the injection, 3, and 24 h after (in the Comet assay) and 36 h after, for micronucleus test. The data showed that both SnCl2 and 99mTc-MDP-induced deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) strand breaks in rat total blood cells, suggesting genotoxic potential. The 99mTc-MDP was not able to induce a significant DNA strand breaks increase in in vivo assays. Taken together, the data presented here points to the formation of a complex between SnCl2 in the radiopharmaceutical 99mTc-MDP, responsible for the decrease in cell damage, compared to both isolated chemical agents. These findings are important for the practice of nuclear medicine.
Keywords: stannous chloride; 99mTc-MDP; genotoxicity; mutagenicity; Comet assay; micronucleus test
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MDPI and ACS Style

De Mattos, J.C.P.; Matos, V.C.; Rodrigues, M.P.; Oliveira, M.B.N.; Dantas, F.J.S.; Santos-Filho, S.D.; Bernardo-Filho, M.; Caldeira-de-Araujo, A. Evaluation of Deoxyribonucleic Acid Toxicity Induced by the Radiopharmaceutical 99mTechnetium-Methylenediphosphonic Acid and by Stannous Chloride in Wistar Rats. Molecules 2012, 17, 12974-12983.

AMA Style

De Mattos JCP, Matos VC, Rodrigues MP, Oliveira MBN, Dantas FJS, Santos-Filho SD, Bernardo-Filho M, Caldeira-de-Araujo A. Evaluation of Deoxyribonucleic Acid Toxicity Induced by the Radiopharmaceutical 99mTechnetium-Methylenediphosphonic Acid and by Stannous Chloride in Wistar Rats. Molecules. 2012; 17(11):12974-12983.

Chicago/Turabian Style

De Mattos, José C.P.; Matos, Vanessa C.; Rodrigues, Michelle P.; Oliveira, Marcia B.N.; Dantas, Flavio J.S.; Santos-Filho, Sebastião D.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Caldeira-de-Araujo, Adriano. 2012. "Evaluation of Deoxyribonucleic Acid Toxicity Induced by the Radiopharmaceutical 99mTechnetium-Methylenediphosphonic Acid and by Stannous Chloride in Wistar Rats." Molecules 17, no. 11: 12974-12983.

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