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Molecules 2012, 17(10), 11294-11302; doi:10.3390/molecules171011294
Article

Synthesis and Cytotoxicity Evaluation of 13-n-Alkyl Berberine and Palmatine Analogues as Anticancer Agents

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Received: 30 August 2012; in revised form: 11 September 2012 / Accepted: 17 September 2012 / Published: 25 September 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Abstract: By introducing long carbon-chain alkyl groups at the C-13 position of berberine and palmatine, 13-n-hexyl/13-n-octyl berberine and palmatine chloride analogues 4ad were synthesized and examined by MTT assays for cytotoxic activity in seven human cancer cell lines (7701QGY, SMMC7721, HepG2, CEM, CEM/VCR, KIII, Lewis), yielding IC50 values of 0.02 ± 0.01–13.58 ± 2.84 μM. 13-n-Octyl palmatine (compound 4d) gave the most potent inhibitor activity, with an IC50 of 0.02 ± 0.01 μM for SMMC7721. In all cases, the 13-n-alkyl berberine and palmatine analogues 4ad were more cytotoxic than berberine and palmatine. In addition, compounds 4ad also exhibited more potent cytotoxicity than berberine and palmatine in mice with S180 sarcoma xenografted in vivo. The primary screening results indicated that the 13-n-hexyl/13-n-octyl berberine and palmatine analogues might be valuable source for new potent anticancer drug candidates.
Keywords: berberine; palmatine; alkylation; cytotoxicity; antitumor berberine; palmatine; alkylation; cytotoxicity; antitumor
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, L.; Li, J.; Ma, F.; Yao, S.; Li, N.; Wang, J.; Wang, Y.; Wang, X.; Yao, Q. Synthesis and Cytotoxicity Evaluation of 13-n-Alkyl Berberine and Palmatine Analogues as Anticancer Agents. Molecules 2012, 17, 11294-11302.

AMA Style

Zhang L, Li J, Ma F, Yao S, Li N, Wang J, Wang Y, Wang X, Yao Q. Synthesis and Cytotoxicity Evaluation of 13-n-Alkyl Berberine and Palmatine Analogues as Anticancer Agents. Molecules. 2012; 17(10):11294-11302.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Lei; Li, Jingjing; Ma, Fei; Yao, Shining; Li, Naisan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yongbin; Wang, Xiuzhen; Yao, Qizheng. 2012. "Synthesis and Cytotoxicity Evaluation of 13-n-Alkyl Berberine and Palmatine Analogues as Anticancer Agents." Molecules 17, no. 10: 11294-11302.


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