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Oligothiophenes as Fluorescent Markers for Biological Applications
Istituto per la Sintesi Organica e la Fotoreattività, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (ISOF-CNR), Via Gobetti 101, Bologna 40129, Italy
ISOF-CNR & Mediteknology s.r.l., Via Gobetti 101, Bologna 40129, Italy
Baseclick GmbH, Bahnhofstrasse 9-15, Tutzing 82327, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 December 2011; in revised form: 4 January 2012 / Accepted: 9 January 2012 / Published: 18 January 2012
Abstract: This paper summarizes some of our results on the application of oligothiophenes as fluorescent markers for biological studies. The oligomers of thiophene, widely known for their semiconductor properties in organic electronics, are also fluorescent compounds characterized by chemical and optical stability, high absorbance and quantum yield. Their fluorescent emission can be easily modulated via organic synthesis by changing the number of thiophene rings and the nature of side-chains. This review shows how oligothiophenes can be derivatized with active groups such as phosphoramidite, N-hydroxysuccinimidyl and 4-sulfotetrafluorophenyl esters, isothiocyanate and azide by which the (bio)molecules of interest can be covalently bound. This paper also describes how molecules such as oligonucleotides, proteins and even nanoparticles, tagged with oligothiophenes, can be used in experiments ranging from hybridization studies to imaging of fixed and living cells. Finally, a few multilabeling experiments are described.
Keywords: oligothiophene; fluorophore; oligonucleotide; monoclonal antibody; cell staining
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MDPI and ACS Style
Capobianco, M.L.; Barbarella, G.; Manetto, A. Oligothiophenes as Fluorescent Markers for Biological Applications. Molecules 2012, 17, 910-933.
Capobianco ML, Barbarella G, Manetto A. Oligothiophenes as Fluorescent Markers for Biological Applications. Molecules. 2012; 17(1):910-933.
Capobianco, Massimo L.; Barbarella, Giovanna; Manetto, Antonio. 2012. "Oligothiophenes as Fluorescent Markers for Biological Applications." Molecules 17, no. 1: 910-933.