Next Article in Journal
Antioxidant Effect of Stryphnodendron rotundifolium Martius Extracts from Cariri-Ceará State (Brazil): Potential Involvement in Its Therapeutic Use
Next Article in Special Issue
Fluorescent Lipids: Functional Parts of Fusogenic Liposomes and Tools for Cell Membrane Labeling and Visualization
Previous Article in Journal
Studies on 3-Oxoalkanenitriles: Novel Rearrangement Reactions Observed in Studies of the Chemistry of 3-Heteroaroyl-3-Oxoalkanenitriles as Novel Routes to 2-Dialkylaminopyridines
Previous Article in Special Issue
Like a Bolt from the Blue: Phthalocyanines in Biomedical Optics
Molecules 2012, 17(1), 910-933; doi:10.3390/molecules17010910
Review

Oligothiophenes as Fluorescent Markers for Biological Applications

1,* , 2
 and 3
Received: 2 December 2011; in revised form: 4 January 2012 / Accepted: 9 January 2012 / Published: 18 January 2012
Download PDF [1216 KB, uploaded 18 June 2014]
Abstract: This paper summarizes some of our results on the application of oligothiophenes as fluorescent markers for biological studies. The oligomers of thiophene, widely known for their semiconductor properties in organic electronics, are also fluorescent compounds characterized by chemical and optical stability, high absorbance and quantum yield. Their fluorescent emission can be easily modulated via organic synthesis by changing the number of thiophene rings and the nature of side-chains. This review shows how oligothiophenes can be derivatized with active groups such as phosphoramidite, N-hydroxysuccinimidyl and 4-sulfotetrafluorophenyl esters, isothiocyanate and azide by which the (bio)molecules of interest can be covalently bound. This paper also describes how molecules such as oligonucleotides, proteins and even nanoparticles, tagged with oligothiophenes, can be used in experiments ranging from hybridization studies to imaging of fixed and living cells. Finally, a few multilabeling experiments are described.
Keywords: oligothiophene; fluorophore; oligonucleotide; monoclonal antibody; cell staining oligothiophene; fluorophore; oligonucleotide; monoclonal antibody; cell staining
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Capobianco, M.L.; Barbarella, G.; Manetto, A. Oligothiophenes as Fluorescent Markers for Biological Applications. Molecules 2012, 17, 910-933.

AMA Style

Capobianco ML, Barbarella G, Manetto A. Oligothiophenes as Fluorescent Markers for Biological Applications. Molecules. 2012; 17(1):910-933.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Capobianco, Massimo L.; Barbarella, Giovanna; Manetto, Antonio. 2012. "Oligothiophenes as Fluorescent Markers for Biological Applications." Molecules 17, no. 1: 910-933.


Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert