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Molecular Properties of Water-Unextractable Proteoglycans from Hypsizygus marmoreus and Their in Vitro Immunomodulatory Activities
Department of Marine Food Science and Technology, Gangneung-Wonju National University, 120 Gangneung Daehangno, Gangneung, Gangwon, 210-702, Korea
Climate Change Research Institute of Korea, Chuncheon-si, Gangwon-do, 200-939, Korea
Present Address: College of Food Science, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Heilongjiang, Daqing 163319, China.
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 October 2011; in revised form: 7 December 2011 / Accepted: 22 December 2011 / Published: 27 December 2011
Abstract: Four proteoglycans were sequentially extracted from Hypsizygus marmoreus using 0.1 M NaOH (alkali-soluble proteoglycans [F1] and alkali-insoluble proteoglycans [F3]) and 0.1 M HCl (acid-soluble proteoglycans [F2] and acid-insoluble proteoglycans [F4]), and their structures and immunomodulatory activities were investigated. The proteoglycans were found to contain carbohydrates (19.8–82.4%) with various amounts of proteins (7.7–67.3%), and glucose was the major monosaccharide unit present, along with trace amounts of galactose. The molecular weights (Mw) and the radius of gyration (Rg) of these proteoglycans showed ranges of 16 × 104–19,545 × 104 g/mol and 35–148 nm, respectively, showing significant variations in their molecular conformations. The backbones of F1 and F2 were mainly connected through a-(1→3), (1→4) and b-(1→6)-glycosidic linkages with some branches. The F1 and F2 proteoglycans significantly stimulated Raw264.7 cells to release nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and various cytokines, such as IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 by inducing their mRNA expressions.
Keywords: Hypsizygus marmoreus; proteoglycan; immunomodulation activity; molecular conformation; glycosidic linkages
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MDPI and ACS Style
Bao, H.H.; Tarbasa, M.; Chae, H.M.; You, S.G. Molecular Properties of Water-Unextractable Proteoglycans from Hypsizygus marmoreus and Their in Vitro Immunomodulatory Activities. Molecules 2012, 17, 207-226.
Bao HH, Tarbasa M, Chae HM, You SG. Molecular Properties of Water-Unextractable Proteoglycans from Hypsizygus marmoreus and Their in Vitro Immunomodulatory Activities. Molecules. 2012; 17(1):207-226.
Bao, Hong Hui; Tarbasa, Mehdi; Chae, Hee Mun; You, Sang Guan. 2012. "Molecular Properties of Water-Unextractable Proteoglycans from Hypsizygus marmoreus and Their in Vitro Immunomodulatory Activities." Molecules 17, no. 1: 207-226.