Next Article in Journal
Synthesis and Biological Activity of Some 3-(4-(Substituted)-piperazin-1-yl)cinnolines
Previous Article in Journal
Chromone and Flavonoid Alkaloids: Occurrence and Bioactivity
Article Menu

Article Versions

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2012, 17(1), 207-226; doi:10.3390/molecules17010207

Molecular Properties of Water-Unextractable Proteoglycans from Hypsizygus marmoreus and Their in Vitro Immunomodulatory Activities

1
Department of Marine Food Science and Technology, Gangneung-Wonju National University, 120 Gangneung Daehangno, Gangneung, Gangwon, 210-702, Korea
2
Climate Change Research Institute of Korea, Chuncheon-si, Gangwon-do, 200-939, Korea
Present Address: College of Food Science, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Heilongjiang, Daqing 163319, China.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 October 2011 / Revised: 7 December 2011 / Accepted: 22 December 2011 / Published: 27 December 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Download PDF [1153 KB, uploaded 18 June 2014]

Abstract

Four proteoglycans were sequentially extracted from Hypsizygus marmoreus using 0.1 M NaOH (alkali-soluble proteoglycans [F1] and alkali-insoluble proteoglycans [F3]) and 0.1 M HCl (acid-soluble proteoglycans [F2] and acid-insoluble proteoglycans [F4]), and their structures and immunomodulatory activities were investigated. The proteoglycans were found to contain carbohydrates (19.8–82.4%) with various amounts of proteins (7.7–67.3%), and glucose was the major monosaccharide unit present, along with trace amounts of galactose. The molecular weights (Mw) and the radius of gyration (Rg) of these proteoglycans showed ranges of 16 × 104–19,545 × 104 g/mol and 35–148 nm, respectively, showing significant variations in their molecular conformations. The backbones of F1 and F2 were mainly connected through a-(1→3), (1→4) and b-(1→6)-glycosidic linkages with some branches. The F1 and F2 proteoglycans significantly stimulated Raw264.7 cells to release nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and various cytokines, such as IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 by inducing their mRNA expressions.
Keywords: Hypsizygus marmoreus; proteoglycan; immunomodulation activity; molecular conformation; glycosidic linkages Hypsizygus marmoreus; proteoglycan; immunomodulation activity; molecular conformation; glycosidic linkages
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Bao, H.H.; Tarbasa, M.; Chae, H.M.; You, S.G. Molecular Properties of Water-Unextractable Proteoglycans from Hypsizygus marmoreus and Their in Vitro Immunomodulatory Activities. Molecules 2012, 17, 207-226.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]

Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top