Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Exploiting the Nucleotide Substrate Specificity of Repair DNA Polymerases To Develop Novel Anticancer Agents
Previous Article in Journal
Modulation of Animal and Human Hematopoiesis by β-Glucans: A Review
Previous Article in Special Issue
NMR and UV Studies of 4-Thio-2′-deoxyuridine and Its Derivatives
Article Menu

Article Versions

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Molecules 2011, 16(9), 7980-7993; doi:10.3390/molecules16097980

Thymidine Analogues for Tracking DNA Synthesis

1
Health Institute and Eskitis Institute, Griffith University, Queensland 4107, Australia
2
Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
These authors contributed equally to the work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 August 2011 / Accepted: 8 September 2011 / Published: 15 September 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nucleoside Analogues)
Download PDF [679 KB, uploaded 18 June 2014]   |  

Abstract

Replicating cells undergo DNA synthesis in the highly regulated, S-phase of the cell cycle. Analogues of the pyrimidine deoxynucleoside thymidine may be inserted into replicating DNA, effectively tagging dividing cells allowing their characterisation. Tritiated thymidine, targeted using autoradiography was technically demanding and superseded by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and related halogenated analogues, detected using antibodies. Their detection required the denaturation of DNA, often constraining the outcome of investigations. Despite these limitations BrdU alone has been used to target newly synthesised DNA in over 20,000 reviewed biomedical studies. A recent breakthrough in “tagging DNA synthesis” is the thymidine analogue 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU). The alkyne group in EdU is readily detected using a fluorescent azide probe and copper catalysis using ‘Huisgen’s reaction’ (1,3-dipolar cycloaddition or ‘click chemistry’). This rapid, two-step biolabelling approach allows the tagging and imaging of DNA within cells whilst preserving the structural and molecular integrity of the cells. The bio-orthogonal detection of EdU allows its application in more experimental assays than previously possible with other “unnatural bases”. These include physiological, anatomical and molecular biological experimentation in multiple fields including, stem cell research, cancer biology, and parasitology. The full potential of EdU and related molecules in biomedical research remains to be explored.
Keywords: DNA synthesis; EdU (5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine); nucleoside analogues DNA synthesis; EdU (5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine); nucleoside analogues
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Cavanagh, B.L.; Walker, T.; Norazit, A.; Meedeniya, A.C. Thymidine Analogues for Tracking DNA Synthesis. Molecules 2011, 16, 7980-7993.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top