Next Article in Journal
The Effect of Tannins on Mediterranean Ruminant Ingestive Behavior: The Role of the Oral Cavity
Previous Article in Journal
Molecular Characterization of Arabinoxylans from Hull-Less Barley Milling Fractions
Molecules 2011, 16(4), 2754-2765; doi:10.3390/molecules16042754
Article

In-Vitro Antagonistic Characteristics of Crude Aqueous and Methanolic Extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) Seeds against Some Vibrio Bacteria

1
,
2
 and
1,*
1 Applied and Environmental Microbiology Research Group (AEMREG), Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa 2 Department of Chemistry, University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 February 2011 / Revised: 18 March 2011 / Accepted: 22 March 2011 / Published: 24 March 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
Download PDF [251 KB, uploaded 18 June 2014]

Abstract

The methanolic and aqueous extracts of Garcinia kola seeds were screened for their anti-Vibrio activities against 50 Vibrio isolates obtained from wastewater final effluents in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The crude extracts at 10 mg/mL exhibited appreciable inhibitory activities against most of the test Vibrio isolates, with zones of inhibition ranging from 10–19 mm for methanol extract and 8–15 mm for the aqueous extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the methanol extract varied from 0.313 to 2.5 mg/mL while that for the aqueous extract was 10 mg/mL for all the susceptible Vibrio isolates. Rate of kill assay of the methanolic extracts against three selected Vibrio species showed bacteriostatic activities against all of them achieving 58% and 60% (Vibrio vulnificus AL042); 68% and 69% (Vibrio parahaemolyticus AL049); and 70% and 78% (Vibrio fluvialis AL040) killing of the test bacteria at 3× and 4 ×MIC values, respectively, after 2 h exposure time. We conclude that Garcinia kola seeds hold promise as a potential source of therapeutic compounds of relevance in Vibrio infections management.
Keywords: Vibrio species; Garcinia kola; methanol extract; aqueous extract; MIC; rate of kill Vibrio species; Garcinia kola; methanol extract; aqueous extract; MIC; rate of kill
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote
MDPI and ACS Style

Penduka, D.; Okoh, O.O.; Okoh, A.I. In-Vitro Antagonistic Characteristics of Crude Aqueous and Methanolic Extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) Seeds against Some Vibrio Bacteria. Molecules 2011, 16, 2754-2765.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here

Comments

Cited By

[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert