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Molecules 2011, 16(4), 2754-2765; doi:10.3390/molecules16042754
Article

In-Vitro Antagonistic Characteristics of Crude Aqueous and Methanolic Extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) Seeds against Some Vibrio Bacteria

1
, 2
 and 1,*
Received: 10 February 2011; in revised form: 18 March 2011 / Accepted: 22 March 2011 / Published: 24 March 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
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Abstract: The methanolic and aqueous extracts of Garcinia kola seeds were screened for their anti-Vibrio activities against 50 Vibrio isolates obtained from wastewater final effluents in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The crude extracts at 10 mg/mL exhibited appreciable inhibitory activities against most of the test Vibrio isolates, with zones of inhibition ranging from 10–19 mm for methanol extract and 8–15 mm for the aqueous extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the methanol extract varied from 0.313 to 2.5 mg/mL while that for the aqueous extract was 10 mg/mL for all the susceptible Vibrio isolates. Rate of kill assay of the methanolic extracts against three selected Vibrio species showed bacteriostatic activities against all of them achieving 58% and 60% (Vibrio vulnificus AL042); 68% and 69% (Vibrio parahaemolyticus AL049); and 70% and 78% (Vibrio fluvialis AL040) killing of the test bacteria at 3× and 4 ×MIC values, respectively, after 2 h exposure time. We conclude that Garcinia kola seeds hold promise as a potential source of therapeutic compounds of relevance in Vibrio infections management.
Keywords: Vibrio species; Garcinia kola; methanol extract; aqueous extract; MIC; rate of kill Vibrio species; Garcinia kola; methanol extract; aqueous extract; MIC; rate of kill
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Penduka, D.; Okoh, O.O.; Okoh, A.I. In-Vitro Antagonistic Characteristics of Crude Aqueous and Methanolic Extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) Seeds against Some Vibrio Bacteria. Molecules 2011, 16, 2754-2765.

AMA Style

Penduka D, Okoh OO, Okoh AI. In-Vitro Antagonistic Characteristics of Crude Aqueous and Methanolic Extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) Seeds against Some Vibrio Bacteria. Molecules. 2011; 16(4):2754-2765.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Omobola O.; Okoh, Anthony I. 2011. "In-Vitro Antagonistic Characteristics of Crude Aqueous and Methanolic Extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) Seeds against Some Vibrio Bacteria." Molecules 16, no. 4: 2754-2765.


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