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Antioxidant Therapy as a Potential Approach to Severe Influenza-Associated Complications
Department of Clinical Molecular Genetics, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 February 2011; in revised form: 23 February 2011 / Accepted: 25 February 2011 / Published: 28 February 2011
Abstract: With the appearance of the novel influenza A (H1N1) virus 2009 strain we have experienced a new influenza pandemic and many patients have died from severe complications associated with this pandemic despite receiving intensive care. This suggests that a definitive medical treatment for severe influenza-associated complications has not yet been established. Many studies have shown that superoxide anion produced by macrophages infiltrated into the virus-infected organs is implicated in the development of severe influenza-associated complications. Selected antioxidants, such as pyrrolidine dithiocabamate, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, glutathione, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, thujaplicin, resveratrol, (+)-vitisin A, ambroxol, ascorbic acid, 5,7,4-trihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone, catechins, quercetin 3-rhamnoside, iso- quercetin and oligonol, inhibit the proliferation of influenza virus and scavenge superoxide anion. The combination of antioxidants with antiviral drugs synergistically reduces the lethal effects of influenza virus infections. These results suggest that an agent with antiviral and antioxidant activities could be a drug of choice for the treatment of patients with severe influenza-associated complications. This review article updates knowledge of antioxidant therapy as a potential approach to severe influenza-associated complications.
Keywords: antioxidant; influenza; antiviral drug
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MDPI and ACS Style
Uchide, N.; Toyoda, H. Antioxidant Therapy as a Potential Approach to Severe Influenza-Associated Complications. Molecules 2011, 16, 2032-2052.
Uchide N, Toyoda H. Antioxidant Therapy as a Potential Approach to Severe Influenza-Associated Complications. Molecules. 2011; 16(3):2032-2052.
Uchide, Noboru; Toyoda, Hiroo. 2011. "Antioxidant Therapy as a Potential Approach to Severe Influenza-Associated Complications." Molecules 16, no. 3: 2032-2052.