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Molecules 2011, 16(3), 1987-2022; doi:10.3390/molecules16031987

Chemical Arsenal for the Study of O-GlcNAc

Department of Science Education-Chemistry Major, Daegu University, Gyeongbuk 712-714, Korea
Received: 27 December 2010 / Revised: 3 February 2011 / Accepted: 15 February 2011 / Published: 28 February 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glycosides)
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The concepts of both protein glycosylation and cellular signaling have been influenced by O-linked-β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification (O-GlcNAcylation) on the hydroxyl group of serine or threonine residues. Unlike conventional protein glycosylation, O-GlcNAcylation is localized in the nucleocytoplasm and its cycling is a dynamic process that operates in a highly regulated manner in response to various cellular stimuli. These characteristics render O-GlcNAcylation similar to phosphorylation, which has long been considered a major regulatory mechanism in cellular processes. Various efficient chemical approaches and novel mass spectrometric (MS) techniques have uncovered numerous O-GlcNAcylated proteins that are involved in the regulation of many important cellular events. These discoveries imply that O-GlcNAcylation is another major regulator of cellular signaling. However, in contrast to phosphorylation, which is regulated by hundreds of kinases and phosphatases, dynamic O-GlcNAc cycling is catalyzed by only two enzymes: uridine diphospho-N-acetyl-glucosamine:polypeptide β-N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase (OGT) and β-D-N-acetylglucosaminidase (OGA). Many useful chemical tools have recently been used to greatly expand our understanding of the extensive crosstalk between O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation and hence of cellular signaling. This review article describes the various useful chemical tools that have been developed and discusses the considerable advances made in the O-GlcNAc field.
Keywords: phosphorylation; O-GlcNAcylation; OGT; OGA; chemical tools phosphorylation; O-GlcNAcylation; OGT; OGA; chemical tools
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Kim, E.J. Chemical Arsenal for the Study of O-GlcNAc. Molecules 2011, 16, 1987-2022.

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