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Carotenoids and Their Isomers: Color Pigments in Fruits and Vegetables
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, China
Laboratory of Analysis and Authentication, Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 January 2011; in revised form: 29 January 2011 / Accepted: 31 January 2011 / Published: 18 February 2011
Abstract: Fruits and vegetables are colorful pigment-containing food sources. Owing to their nutritional benefits and phytochemicals, they are considered as ‘functional food ingredients’. Carotenoids are some of the most vital colored phytochemicals, occurring as all-trans and cis-isomers, and accounting for the brilliant colors of a variety of fruits and vegetables. Carotenoids extensively studied in this regard include β-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin. Coloration of fruits and vegetables depends on their growth maturity, concentration of carotenoid isomers, and food processing methods. This article focuses more on several carotenoids and their isomers present in different fruits and vegetables along with their concentrations. Carotenoids and their geometric isomers also play an important role in protecting cells from oxidation and cellular damages.
Keywords: carotene; cryptoxanthin; fruit; lutein; lycopene; vegetables; zeaxanthin
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MDPI and ACS Style
Khoo, H.-E.; Prasad, K.N.; Kong, K.-W.; Jiang, Y.; Ismail, A. Carotenoids and Their Isomers: Color Pigments in Fruits and Vegetables. Molecules 2011, 16, 1710-1738.
Khoo H-E, Prasad KN, Kong K-W, Jiang Y, Ismail A. Carotenoids and Their Isomers: Color Pigments in Fruits and Vegetables. Molecules. 2011; 16(2):1710-1738.
Khoo, Hock-Eng; Prasad, K. Nagendra; Kong, Kin-Weng; Jiang, Yueming; Ismail, Amin. 2011. "Carotenoids and Their Isomers: Color Pigments in Fruits and Vegetables." Molecules 16, no. 2: 1710-1738.