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Molecules 2011, 16(2), 1366-1377; doi:10.3390/molecules16021366

Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils from Organically Cultivated Fennel Cultivars

1
Department of Phytochemistry, Production of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, National Research Centre (NRC), 12311 Dokki, Cairo, Egypt
2
Department of Cultivation, Production of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, National Research Centre (NRC), 12311 Dokki, Cairo, Egypt
3
Department of Biology, Texas Southern University, 3100 Cleburne Ave, Houston, TX 77004, USA
4
Department of Chemistry, Texas Southern University, 3100 Cleburne Ave, Houston, TX 77004, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 December 2010 / Revised: 8 January 2011 / Accepted: 19 January 2011 / Published: 1 February 2011
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Abstract

Essential oils of the fruits of three organically grown cultivars of Egyptian fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum, Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce and Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare) were examined for their chemical constituents, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of the essential oils revealed the presence of 18 major monoterpenoids in all three cultivars but their percentage in each oil were greatly different. trans-Anethole, estragole, fenchone and limonene were highly abundant in all of the examined oils. Antioxidant activities of the essential oils were evaluated using the DPPH radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation and metal chelating assays. Essential oils from the azoricum and dulce cultivars were more effective antioxidants than that from the vulgare cultivar. Antimicrobial activities of each oil were measured against two species of fungi, two species of Gram negative and two species of Gram positive bacteria. All three cultivars showed similar antimicrobial activity.
Keywords: Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum; Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce; Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare; antibacterial; antifungal; antioxidant; organic agriculture; GCMS; DPPH Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum; Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce; Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare; antibacterial; antifungal; antioxidant; organic agriculture; GCMS; DPPH
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shahat, A.A.; Ibrahim, A.Y.; Hendawy, S.F.; Omer, E.A.; Hammouda, F.M.; Abdel-Rahman, F.H.; Saleh, M.A. Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils from Organically Cultivated Fennel Cultivars. Molecules 2011, 16, 1366-1377.

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